Open Access Short Research Article

Comfrey Mulch Enriches Soil, But Does Not Improve an Indicator Crop within One Season

Mia. M. Howard, Alena A. Plotkin, Amelia R. McClure, Vanja Klepac-Ceraj, Alden B. Griffith, Daniel J. Brabander, Kristina N. Jones

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/40403

Comfrey (Symphytum spp.) is thought to accumulate plant nutrients such as potassium (K) in its leaves and is consequently used widely as a green mulch.  We sought to investigate the efficacy of comfrey as a soil amendment by measuring its nutritional composition and the effects of mulching with comfrey on soil nutrients, soil microbial communities, and growth and quality of an indicator crop (kale) over one growing season in a small garden plot.  We found that comfrey was rich in K and plots mulched with comfrey had higher concentrations of elemental K, as well as higher concentrations of available nitrogen, compared to plots mulched with paper.  Diversity and composition of soil bacterial communities was similar between comfrey- and paper-mulched plots, but began to show a trend toward divergence by the end of the growing season.  Overall, comfrey mulch did not enhance the yield or nutritional content of the kale, but perhaps could improve crop performance over a longer period of time or in K-limited soils.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phosphorus Sorption under Changing Soil Drainage Condition of a Wetland –Implications for Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture

Godwin A. Ajiboye, Toyin Faniyi, Samuel A. Mesele

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/38687

Phosphorous is a major limiting factor for plant growth, and its behaviour varies significantly under different soil drainage conditions. Understanding the chemistry of phosphorus availability of wetlands remain imperative for sustainable management of paddies under intensive agriculture and this has not been well documented. A study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of soil drainage condition on the phosphorus sorption capacity of some wetland soils in south-west Nigeria. Soil samples were taken at 0-30 cm (surface) and 30-60 cm (subsurface) soil depth across some land use types under dry and wet soil conditions, primarily during the rainy and dry seasons. Phosphorus sorption studies were carried out using standard protocols. The results showed that the phosphorus sorption isotherms for the soils had the characteristic L- shape and were best described by Langmuir II adsorption isotherm. The R2 values of the isotherms varied between 0.97 and 0.99. The adsorption maxima (Smax) ranged from 17.09 to 39.22 mg kg-1under wet condition while it ranged from 37.74 to 138.89 mg kg-1 in the dry soil. The P sorption capacities of the soils were higher in the dry soils which had Smax that were 4 to 6 times greater than those of the wet soil. Similarly, the specific P requirement (SPR) of the dry soils were higher than those of the wet soils. This suggests that P fertilizer requirement for crop production during the wet season is essentially determined by the quantity of P applied during the dry season and this should be taken into consideration in fertiliser management programs to avoid eutrophication. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Chlorophyll Content, Dry Matter Accumulation, Marketable Bulb Yield, Quality and Post Harvest Nutrients Status of Soil as Affected with N Levels and Varieties in Kharif Onion (Allium cepa L.)

Sourav Gupta, S. S. Kushwah, S. N. Mishra

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/39257

The present experiment was conducted with the objectives: (i) To evaluate the performance of onion varieties (ii) To study the effect of N levels (iii) To find out the interactive effect of varieties and N levels on chlorophyll content, dry matter accumulation, marketable bulb yield, quality and post-harvest available NPK content in soil. Field experiment was conducted during kharif 2011-12 at Research field, Department of Vegetable Science, College of Horticulture, Mandsaur a campus of Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior (Madhya Pradesh), India. Fifteen treatment combinations comprising of three varieties (V1 - Agrifound Dark Red, V2 - Bhima Super, V3 - Bhima Red) and five N levels (N1- 0 kg ha-1, N2 - 60 kg ha-1, N3 - 90 kg ha-1, N4 - 120 kg ha-1 and N5 - 150 kg ha-1) were laid in factorial randomized block design with three replications. Uniform doses of P (80 kg ha-1) and K (60 kg ha-1) were applied in each plot of the experiment. N doses (0, 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg ha-1) were applied to the plots as per the treatment. The sources of nutrients viz., N, P and K were Urea, Single Superphosphate and Muriate of Potash, respectively. Half dose of N and whole dose of P and K were applied as basal dose before transplanting of seedlings. While the remaining half dose of N was applied in 2 equal split doses, first at 30 and second at 45 days after transplanting. The findings of the experiment revealed significant effect of varieties and N levels on chlorophyll content in leaves, dry matter accumulation, marketable bulb yield and pyruvic acid content in bulb and post-harvest nutrients status of soil and NPK content in plant. However, interactive effect of varieties and nitrogen levels was non-significant on marketable bulb yield, post-harvest available K content in soil. Highest chlorophyll content, dry weight of bulb and marketable bulb yield were recorded with Agrifound Dark Red. Variety Bhima Super had highest pyruvic acid content and lowest number of doubles. Post-harvest analysis of plant showed highest NPK content with Agrifound Dark Red. Post-harvest analysis of soil indicated highest available NPK under Bhima Super. Among N levels, highest chlorophyll content, dry weight of bulb, number of doubles, marketable bulb yield, pyruvic acid content in bulb and NPK content in plant were found with application of 150 kg N ha-1. Highest available N in soil was determined with 150 kg N ha-1. Highest P and K were found with 0 kg N ha-1.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Physiology of Local Rice Varieties under Moisture Stress Condition

Z. A. Abubakar, K. Dedan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/40397

A well-established limiting factor for the survival of plant under normal growth and developmental stages is water stress. Several living (Biotic) and nonliving (abiotic) factors unfavorably affect rice growth and as well yield, and this is connected with the adverse and intense effect of water (Adejare and Unebesse, 2008). In view of this, the present study was carried out during the dry season, between the month of March to April, 2017 which aimed at determining how moisture stress affect the growth physiology of our locally grown rice varieties and to determine the rice variety with drought resistant mechanism between three (3) different local rice varieties: Mai Zabuwa, Maza haji, B.G doguwa. The plant samples were obtained from local farmers from the main city market, a control variety of upland drought resistant rice variety was used as a control (Nerica). There were three different treatments namely, W1 (control-well watered), W2 (mildly watered) and W3 (stressed). A total of 36 pots with a combination of three (3) replications for each treatment including control were been put up for the experiment. The studies revealed that drought adaptation mechanism have shown to be noticeably observed in the Mai Zabuwa variety whereas B.G doguwa and Maza haji performed poorly under drought treatment. Mai Zabuwa, suggestively is observed to have behaved as a drought resistant variety as compared to Nerica.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Organic Soil Amendments in Controlling Rhizome Rot of Ginger

Md. Kamal Hosain, Sk. Md. Mobarak Hossain, S. M. Emdadul Hassan, Md. Mukul Islam, Md. Atiar Rahman, Md. Shazadur Rahman

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/40355

Aims: To determine the effect of organic soil amendments on rhizome rot of ginger.

Study Design: The study was laid out in a randomised complete block design with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted at the Plant Pathology Research Field of Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh during 2016-2017.

Methodology: Soil were amended with mustard seed cake (2 t/ha), neem seed cake (2 t/ha), sawdust (2 t/ha), vermicompost (4 t/ha), poultry litter (4 t/ha), cow dung (2 t/ha) with one control (without amendment). The total number of unit plots was 21 and the size of the unit plot was 13 m × 7 m.

Results: Soil amended plots showed better results by reducing the disease severity and many rhizome rot infected plants. Among the treatment; mustard seed cake exhibited least disease severity (14.76%) of rhizome and maximum yield (5.76 t/ha) of ginger as compared to control plot (65.56% disease severity and 0.82 t/ha rhizome).

Conclusion: Mustard seed cake may be recommended for better performance in controlling of rhizome rot disease of ginger.