Open Access Case Report

Economic Analysis for Forage Agronomic Crops Grown Using Treated Wastewater in Kherbeh Als-Samra Region, Jordan

Mohunnad Massimi, Nidal Bader, Khadija Khamish, Abdallah- Al S'uod

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/40960

Regarding Jordan's apparent climate change, the urgent need to use treated wastewater for irrigation and the production of forage crops has become an imperative. The possibilities for growing highly profitable forage crops using treated wastewater are discussed in the case of extension demonstrations in Kherbeh Als-Samra region. The economic analysis for extension demonstrations of Kherbeh Als-Samra region is presented. The case report has been prepared in the Zarqa Extension Unit, National Center for Agricultural Research in Jordan between June 2011 and January 2018. Treated wastewater is a very important non-conventional water source of Zarqa River Basin in Jordan. The main source is the effluent from Kherbeh Als-Samra wastewater treatment plant. The effluent route sided with several types of forage crops. Alfalfa, Egyptian clover, wheat, barley, triticale, rye grass, forage sorghum, silage corn, sweet corn, and Sudan grass are the most planted forage crops. Wadi Dlayl has located in the Zarqa River Basin also, this area is the best for rearing livestock and mainly the dairy cows. Data about economic analysis are presented because of its importance for the profitability and efficiency ratio evaluations. The economic analysis for the forage crops irrigated with treated wastewater in Jordan indicates that rye grass is the highest profitable forage crop for growers. Chemical weed control is used to improve the marketing price of forage crops. However, irrigation modeling, drought-tolerant hybrids, using machinery, and crop rotations must be introduced to improve the efficiency ratio.

Open Access Minireview Article

A Review of Soil Compaction- Concerns, Causes and Alleviation

Vinod Kumar, Mukesh Jain, Vijaya Rani, Anil Kumar, Sushil Kumar, Naresh .

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/40351

Soil compaction is an important soil management issue of the sustainable agriculture throughout the world. High weight of tractors and farm machineries increases the concern about the soil compaction. This review act as a guide for farm persons on the negative impact of soil compaction on crops causes and soil management practices and methods for alleviation of compaction with decreasing the risk of more extensive compaction damage in the future. Compaction changes many soil properties and negative effects are related to a decrease in permeability to air and water in root zone of crops. This results into decreased crop production and increased draft of tillage operations. The major causes of the soil compaction are use of heavy machinery traffic, performing same farm operations on the field, poor crop diversification and time restrictions in the crop cycle. To correct soil compaction problem, first tactile method is to avoid or limit farm operations that causes the compaction. Major methods to alleviate compaction include optimized tilling of soil, incorporating priming crops in crop rotation, subsoiling and controlled traffic farming. Monitoring of soil conditions constantly and wise use of farm machinery is the most viable approach to tackle the soil compaction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Sowing Dates on Performance of Pepper and Cowpea in a Pineapple-based Intercropping System

A. J. Ajayi, S. O. Agele, O. P. Aiyelari

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/36824

The effects of time of sowing cowpea into pineapple-pepper intercrop on growth and yields of cowpea and pepper in a pineapple-pepper intercropping system was investigated during the rainy and late seasons of 2011 and 2012 in Akure, a humid rainforest zone of Nigeria. The additive series of intercropping experiments were laid out in a randomised complete block design with three replications. Experimental treatments were based on varying time of sowing cowpea at three weeks intervals into pineapple-pepper intercrop in addition to the sole crop components. In the rainy-season planting, cowpea seed yields declined significantly by 80% with delayed sowing (at 6 and nine weeks) into the intercrop. In the late-season, cowpea seed yields dropped by over 50% with delayed planting. Pepper fruit yields also declined by 95% when cowpea was sown at the time of transplanting pepper in both the rainy and late season experiments. Cowpea yield components declined with delayed sowing while pepper yield components increased possibly via enhanced competition between pepper and cowpea. Sowing cowpea at the time of transplanting pepper lowered pineapple fruit yield. Land equivalent ratio values were more significant than one (>1) for all species mixtures indicating enhanced returns and complementarities among component crops.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Studies of the Kernel Yield and Attributing Traits of Single Cross Hybrid in Yellow Maize (Zea mays L.)

R. A. Gami, N. V. Soni, S. M. Chaudhary, S. D. Solanki, P. C. Patel

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/40890

Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the emerging crops having its position in top three cereal crops throughout the world in area and production. In this study, six lines and five testers were crossed in Line × Tester mating design to produce 30 single cross hybrids. The hybrids, their parents along with standard check GAYMH-1 were evaluated in Randomized Block Design, with three replications for yield and attributing traits. The results indicated non-additive gene action found to be predominant for inheritance of flowering traits while, kernel yield, cob yield, cob girth and cob length showed solely non-additive gene actions. Among the parents, BLD-250, BLD-221, BLD-210 and BLD-107 reported as best combiners for yield and attributing traits. The hybrids, Z 488-4 × VL-1032 and BLD-250 × BLD-46 reported good specific combining ability, higher magnitude of heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis for kernel yield per plant. Whereas, the cross combination, WNC 18242 × VL-1032 reported desirable SCA and heterobeltiosis for flowering and maturity traits. The cross combinations found superior for kernel yield and related traits includes both parents with either good or average general combiners. These combinations could be utilized in near future for identifying superior genotypes with better kernel yield performance and/or earliness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Fertilizer and Agronomic Practices on the Growth of Boro Rice (cv. BRRI dhan58) in Haor Area

M. Kamuruzzaman, M. A. Kashem, M. A. Aziz, S. Ali

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/40487

The experiment was carried out at Sunamganj district during November 2014 to April 2015 to observe the fertilizer management and agronomic practices on the growth of boro rice (cv. BRRI dhan58) in haor area of Bangladesh. The experimental site was located under Sylhet basin (AEZ-21) having moderately acidic and medium with very low drainage facility and the soil was Loamy clays type. The experiment comprised two level of fertilizers viz. farmers’ practice based fertilizer (F1) and BARC recommended fertilizer dose (F2) and  three agronomic practices viz. farmers’ agronomic practice (P1), proper seedling age and proper spacing (P2), proper seedling age and proper spacing + Integrated Pest Management (IPM), (P3). The experiments were laid out in a 2x3 factorial fitted into a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five farmers’ replications. Fertilizer significantly affected the growth parameter of boro rice (cv. BRRI dhan58). BARC recommended fertilizer treatment gave taller plant height (90.38 cm) at harvest than farmers’ practice based fertilizer treatment. The number of tillers (17.64) hill-1 at 90 DAT was significantly affected due to BARC recommended fertilizer than farmers’ practice based fertilizer. The growth parameter was not significantly affected due to agronomic practices. The non-significant effect of their interaction was recorded the highest plant height (90.50 cm) obtained from (F2P3) and number of tillers hill–1 increased up to 90 days after transplanting (DAT). From the results of the study it can be concluded that BARC recommended fertilizer dozes (F2) with proper seedling age and proper spacing + IPM (F2P3) gave the best growth performance of boro rice (cv. BRRI dhan58) in haor area.