Open Access Original Research Article

Growth, Physiological and Nutrient Uptake Traits of Crotalaria Cover Crops Influenced by Levels of Carbon Dioxide under Low Light Intensities

Virupax C. Baligar, Marshall K. Elson, Zhenli L. He, Yuncong Li, Arlicelio de Q. Paiva, Dario Ahnert, Alex-Alan F. Almeida

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/41846

Crotalarias are tropical legumes grown as cover crops or green manure crops to improve soil fertility and reduce soil degradation. As understory plants in plantation crop systems, these cover crops receive elevated levels of [CO2] and low irradiance. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of ambient (400 μmol mol-1) and elevated (700 μmol mol-1) levels of [CO2] at low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 100, 250 or 450 µmol m-2 s-1 on growth, physiological and nutrient use parameters of four Crotalaria species (C. breviflora, C. mucronata, C. ochroleuca and C. spectabilis).  Elevated [CO2] had little effect on growth, but increased NAR and nutrient use efficiency of N, Cu, Fe and Zn.  PPFD had significant effects on growth, physiology and NUE.  Increasing PPFD increased nutrient use efficiency of N and K, but reduced nutrient use efficiency of P and micronutrients.  At low light intensities irrespective of [CO2], intraspecific differences were observed in crotalaria for growth, physiology and nutrient uptake traits.  Irrespective of [CO2] levels at low PPFDs, C. mucronata was efficient in N, Ca, Cu, and Zn use efficiency and C. spectabilis was efficient in P, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn use efficiency

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Soil Parameters in Various Forest Types of Mukundpur, Satna Forest Division of Madhya Pradesh, India

Prachi Singh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/40908

The study area was the forest area of 111.55 km2 of Mukundpur range of Satna Forest division, Madhya Pradesh, India which was susceptible to illicit felling, encroachment and illicit mining. To re-vegetate the blanks of the forest, the associations of soil parameters like pH, electrical conductivity, availability of major nutrients and micro nutrients of various forest types were analyzed under the present study.

The stratified systematic random sampling design was used for sampling. The 151 sample points at 30”x 30” were selected and laid on ground with the help of GPS. The layout of sample plot of 0.16 hectare with 9 quadrate of 2 mX2 m on ground was done with the help of prismatic compass. Half kg of soil sample was collected from central quadrat at a depth of 30 cm from the sample point and air-dried under shade. The soil parameters pH, electrical conductivity (mili mhos/cm), organic carbon (%), available nitrogen (kg/ha), available P2O5 (kg/ha), available K2O (kg/ha) and micronutrient analysis for the availability of zinc (ppm), iron (ppm), manganese (ppm) and copper (ppm) were assessed at soil testing laboratory Rewa. The Microsoft access program was developed to evaluate the above soil parameters in various forest types.

Individually, in mixed type of forests electrical conductivity and available manganese had significant contribution but in teak forest type's, electrical conductivity, available phosphorus, iron and copper had significant association. Available iron and copper were the major responsible factors in teak forest type while available manganese was the major responsible factor in mixed forest types individually. The joint impact of available nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium did not have any association in the formation of forest types. In teak forest types individually Fe and Cu did have significant association while available Mn did contribute a significant association in mixed forest types.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Tomato Cultivars through Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation for Bacterial Canker (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp michiganensis) in Open and Protected Conditions

Ruchi Tripathi, K. Vishunavat, Rashmi Tewari

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/41563

Twenty-five tomato cultivars were evaluated in two growing season and two growth conditions against bacterial canker (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp michiganensis) at the Vegetable Research Centre (V.R.C.) Pantnagar. The experiment was completely randomized in controlled conditions (glass house) and randomized block design in open field conditions. The experiment was done by two methods, first, through alteration in the enzymatic concentrations of the ROS-scavenging enzymes estimation (quantitative method) and second, through symptom expression (qualitative method) in open and protected conditions.  Out of the 25 cultivars screened between September 2015–January, 2016 for the first growing season (5-35ºC), disease appearance was observed in cultivar Pusa Ruby (21.60%) followed by Rohini (20.60%) and Arka Vikash (19.56%) in open field conditions. In the protected crop conditions of glasshouse the cultivar with maximum disease appearance was Arka Vikash with a disease severity of 24.1% followed by Rohini (19.50%) and Pusa Ruby (18.00%). During the second growing season (24-45°C), Feb 16–June 16, all the cultivars exhibited susceptible disease reaction in both the open field and glass house. The cultivar screening resulted in Phule Raja, a potential cultivar with resistance by delayed expression of the pathogen presence at the end of the growth period (May), while the remaining 24 varieties exhibited susceptible disease reaction early in the growth period.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Crop Residue Management on Soil Properties and Crop Yield, in Irrigated Corn-Wheat Cropping System

Mohammad Ali Behaeen, Sadegh Afzalinia

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/41798

Aims: The main aim of this study was to determine the effects of residue management methods on the soil properties and crop yield in corn-wheat cropping system during four years research, and to introduce a proper residue management method for corn-wheat rotation in Fars province, Iran.

Study Design:  The research was conducted in the form of a split-plot experimental design with three replications. Main-plots were wheat residue management with four levels, and corn residue with two levels was considered as subplots.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in Darab Research Station of Fars province, Iran from September 2005 to September 2009.

Methodology: This research was conducted in the form of a split plot experiment with the base of randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications in Darab Research Station of Fars province, Iran. Main-plots were wheat residue management methods including 1) shredding the residue using shredder and tilling the soil with moldboard plow (25 cm) and disk harrow; 2) shredding the residue using shredder and tilling the soil with chisel plow and rotivator; 3) retaining the crop residue on the soil surface without any tillage operation (no-till); and 4) burning the residue and tilling the soil with moldboard plow (25 cm) and disk harrow. Corn residue management methods including 1) stalk shredding using stalk shredder, burying the chopped stalk using moldboard plow (25 cm), and applying disk harrow; 2) burning residue (conventional method) were considered as sub-plots. Parameters consisting of bulk density, soil cone index, soil organic carbon, percentage of seed emergence, and crop yield were measured. Collected data were analyzed using SAS statistical software and Duncan's multiple range tests was used to compare the treatments means.

Results: Results indicated that shredding the residue by shredder and incorporation with soil decreased the soil bulk density and soil cone index. There was a significant difference between the burying crop residue and retaining the residue on the soil surface from the view point of soil bulk density and soil cone index. The percentage of seeds emerged, emergence rate index, and yield in shredding the residue by shredder along with applying chisel plow and rotivator had the highest amount because of the uniformity of residue distribution. After four years adding corn and wheat residue into the soil, the soil organic carbon increased for 13% and 10% in the residue management treatments and burning residue method, respectively.

Conclusion: The following conclusions could be drawn from the results of this study:

  1. Adding shredded crop (corn and wheat) residue to the soil increased the soil organic carbon.
  2. Soil bulk density and cone index (soil compaction) decreased by incorporating the chopped crop residue to the soil.

Adding chopped corn and wheat residue to the soil improved corn and wheat seed emergence and yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of the Effects of Soil Physico-chemical and Hydraulic Properties on Citrullus lanatus and Cucumis sativus in Southwestern, Nigeria

G. A. Ali, T. A. Ademiju, A. D. Agbim

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/41136

In this era of agricultural transformation by the federal government of Nigeria, no opportunity that can assist in achieving food security is ignored. Several crops which were previously underutilized are now being promoted for sustainable utilization. Such crops among others include watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Achieving efficient production and high yield requires adequate knowledge about the soil and climatic conditions that are favourable to these two crops under investigation. This study aimed at investigating the effects of physico-chemical and hydraulic properties of southwestern soils on the crops. Soil sample were randomly taken from different locations on the selected farms where the selected crops are being cultivated. The soil was taken at different depths (0-15 cm, 15-30 cm and 30-45 cm) and the sample were taken to the laboratory and to determine their moisture content, pH, electrical conductivity, exchangeable cations and texture and the results of the soil test were then subjected to appropriate statistical analyses. The results show that bulk density, moisture content (M.C) at field capacity and permanent wilting point (PWP), and the total available water at different depths of soil for cucumber (C. sativus) and watermelon (C. lanatus) at the selected farm range from 1.22 g/cm3 to 1.6 g/cm3 and 8.83 cm/m and 13.30 cm/m respectively. Also, the result of pH, electrical conductivity and exchangeable cations range from 5.27 to 5.26, 85.85 to 96.20 mS/cm and 0.29 cmol/kg to 0.40 cmol/kg, respectively. The assessments of water management practices adopted by the farmers at the selected farms and the soils on which the selected crops are been cultivated hereby provide information on the suitability of the soils in the area as well as other similar soils in Nigeria for the crops’ cultivation as well as potential amendments