Open Access Short Research Article

Salt Leaching and Growth of Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas L.) on Oxisol under Swine Wastewater Fertigation in Southern Brazil

Thaisa Pegoraro Comassetto, Silvio César Sampaio, Maria Hermínia Ferreira Tavares

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/43098

Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 370 m3 ha-1 application of swine wastewater on the vegetative growth of the physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) and the leaching of salts from an oxisol in southern Brazil.

Study Design: The experiment had a randomized design with three treatments (T1 - rain-fed, T2 - irrigated and T3 - fertigated with swine wastewater) and six replications.

Place and Duration of Study: Western Paraná State University, between October 2008 and December 2009.

Methodology: The following parameters were evaluated: canopy height, leaf area, basal diameter, number of side branches, the height of the 1st branch and the number of inflorescences and fruits per plant. The electrical conductivity and pH of the percolating water were evaluated following five rainfall events, using nine lysimeters installed prior to the planting of the experimental plots.

Results: Significant differences among treatments were observed in plant height (P = .045), and the number of inflorescences (P = .00) and fruits (P = .02). The numbers of inflorescences (5.21) and fruits (9.17) were highest in the SW-fertigated treatment (T3). In relation the concentration of salts, electrical conductivity values were higher for SW-fertigated (0.110-0.154 dS m-1) than either rain-fed (0.087-0.115 dS m-1) or irrigated (0.057-0.075 dS m-1) in all samples.

Conclusion: The application of SW resulted in a significant increase in some parameters of J. curcas productivity, and may thus be encouraged as an agricultural reuse practice. However,         further studies are required to evaluate the potential environmental pollution caused by this practice.

Open Access Short Research Article

Influence of Empty Oil Palm Bunch Ash on Vegetative Growth and Control of Leaf Blight Disease of Cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott.] Caused by Phytophthora colocasiae

T. E. Omeje, E. E. Ikenganyia, S. U. Awere, M. A. N. Anikwe

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/35662

Field experiments were done to determine the effect of oil palm bunch ash on vegetative growth and control of leaf blight disease of cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott.] caused by Phytophthora colocasiae in a degraded ultisol of humid forest/derived Savanna zone of Southeastern, Nigeria. The experiment consisted of four rates of empty oil palm bunch ash (EOPBA) namely 0 t ha-1, 1 t ha-1, 2 t ha-1 and 3 t ha-1 laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated three times. Soil samples were collected from the topsoil at a depth of 0 to 20 cm before application of EOPBA. Samples of EOPBA were analyzed to determine the chemical constituent of the ash applied to the soil. The result revealed that the application of EOPBA gave a non-significant (p > 0.05) effect on percentage emergency of cocoyam at 30 days after planting, the number of leaves at 30, 60 and 120 days after planting except at 90 days after planting which had a significant effect, leave area index at 30, 90 and 120 DAP was non-significant (p > 0.05) except at 60 DAP were a significant effect was observed and cocoyam leaf blight incidence and severity were non-significant (p > 0.05) at 90 and 120 days after planting respectively. The use of EOPBA as a soil amendment and for the control of cocoyam leaf blight diseases caused by Phytophthora colocasiae revealed that it has the potentials of promoting vegetative growth of cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott.] grown in a degraded ultisol. This study also revealed that EOPBA does not have any significant effect (p > 0.05) in the control of cocoyam leaf blight incidence and severity. Application of 2 t ha-1 was found to be an optimal dose in the enhancement of cocoyam vegetative growth (leaf area index, number of leaves, stem girth and plant height respectively)

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Cytotoxicity Activities of Methanolic and Ethanolic Extracts of Enhydra fluctuans Lour (Helencha) (Family: Asteraceae) Stems and Leaves

Najnin Akter Haoya, Md. Shariful Islam, Sharifa Sultana, Sheikh Jannatul Mahia, Fakhrul Islam Sukorno, Mourani Biswas

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/42796

Aims: To investigate the presence of various phytochemicals and to evaluate DPPH scavenging activity, total flavonoid content, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the different extracts of Enhydra fluctuans lour.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out between June 2017 to November 2017 in the Department of Pharmacy, Daffodil International University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Methodology: The leaves and stems of Enhydra fluctuans lour were extracted with ethanol and methanol. By qualitative analysis phytochemical evaluation was carried out using DPPH scavenging activity and total flavonoid content determined in vitro antioxidant activity of the crude extract. Cytotoxic activity was determined by using brine shrimp lethality bioassay and antimicrobial activity was determined by using disc diffusion method.

Results: The presence of flavonoids, steroids, saponins, carbohydrates, vitamin C, alkaloids, diterpenthees, and amino acids are influence by phytochemical study. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of methanolic and ethanolic extract were mild to moderate than ascorbic acid (standard). The IC50 value of methanolic and ethanolic extract were respectively 619.55,115.67 µg/ml compared with the standard ascorbic acid with IC50 value of 17.81 µg/ml. The total flavonoid contents were 67 mg (QE/gm extract) and 21 mg (QE/gm extract) for 500 µg/ml concentration for two extract. The ethanolic extract of 400 µg/disc exhibited the highest zone of inhibition of 12 mm against Escherichia coli. The LC50 value of methanolic and ethanolic extract were 3.29, 27.446 µg/ml respectively compared with the standard vincristine sulphate with  LC50 value of 0.632 mg/ml.

Conclusion:  All of those study of a methanolic and ethanolic extract of Enhydra fluctuans prove that it has an antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Diversity Analysis of NERICA Lines and Parents Using SSR Markers

Md. Masud Rana, Md. Ashraful Islam, Shahin Imran, Silve Rubani, Lutful Hassan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/43342

Diversity at molecular level among 10 genotypes was evaluated using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers. The primer RM510 is for the trait salt tolerant, RM351 for drought tolerant and RM215 for short duration. The 10 rice genotypes showed clear diversification for the primers RM510, RM351 and RM215. A total of 10 alleles were detected among the 10 rice genotypes. The number of allele locus-1 ranged from 3 (RM510 and RM215) to 4 (RM351) with an average of 3.33 allele locus-1. On average, 40% of the 10 rice genotypes shared a common major allele ranging from 30% (RM351) to 50% (RM510) common allele at each locus. The PIC value ranged from 0.492 (RM510) to 0.745 (RM351) with an average of 0.608 locus-1. The highest PIC value (0.745) was obtained from RM351, followed by RM510 (0.492) and RM215 (0.586). However, RM510 (0.492) and RM215 (0.586) could be conceded as least powerful markers with lower PIC values. The 10 genotypes were grouped into 4 clusters based on UPGMA method. Using 27% similarity as the threshold for UPGMA clustering, we observed four major genetic clusters. Cluster I, II, III and IV contained 1, 3, 1 and 5 genotypes respectively. These results revealed that markers RM351 would be best in screening 10 rice genotypes followed by RM510 and RM215. The information about the genetic diversity will be very useful for proper identification and selection of appropriate parents for future breeding programs

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Fertilizers on Yield and Yield Contributing Characters of Local Aromatic Aman Rice Varieties in Sylhet Region

Kamrun Nahar Mousomi, Mohammad Noor Hossain Miah, Md. Abul Kashem, Imtiaz Miah

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/42071

A pot experiment was conducted at the experimental net house of the Department of Soil Science, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet, Bangladesh to observe the effect of variety and fertilizer on yield and yield contributing character of local aromatic rice varieties during the Aman season of 2015. Five aromatic rice varieties (Kalizira: V1, Muktasail: V2, Nagrasail: V3, Maloti: V4 and Chinigura: V5) and four levels of fertilizer (Recommended dose: F1 i.e. 45-10-20-10-0.5 kg ha-1 of N-P-K-S-Zn, 2/3rd of recommended dose: F2, 1/3rd of recommended dose: F3, and Control: F4) were used with three replication following RCBD.  Recorded yield and yield contributing characters were panicle length, a number of effective and non-effective tillers hill-1, grains panicle-1, sterile spikelets panicle-1, total spikelets panicle-1, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, straw yield, harvest index, panicle emergence days, and total maturity days. With few exceptions, yield and yield contributing characters of the aromatic rice varieties were significantly affected due to the application of different fertilizer levels. The highest grain yield was recorded in Nagrasail variety (65.33 g pot-1) followed by Kalizira (65.26 g pot-1) with the recommended dose of fertilizers while the lowest yield (24.31 g pot-1) was obtained in Maloti with control. Straw yield was the highest (174.07 g pot-1) in Maloti with the recommended dose of fertilizers but the lowest yield (61.70 g pot-1) was recorded in Kalizira variety with control. The overall results indicated that recommended dose of all chemical fertilizers optimized the yield of aromatic rice