Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Sources and Levels of Sulphur under Irrigated Condition in Maize

Rahul K. Sutar, B. N. Aravinda Kumar, M. P. Potdar, Amit M. Pujar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/43615

Maize has a greater significance in irrigated condition and is used as human food and animal feed. In recent years, it is being realised that apart from the major nutrients, the role of secondary nutrients in general and sulphur in particular in increasing yield and quality of maize is of paramount importance. A field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2011 at Saidapur farm, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India to evaluate the response of maize to different sources and levels of sulphur in sandy clay loam soil. The results revealed that grain yield differed significantly due to different sources and levels of sulphur applied. Among the sources, application of sulphur through Bentonite recorded significantly higher grain yield (42.35 q ha-1) as against gypsum (38.98 q ha-1). This increase in grain yield was 31.60 and 21.3% with the application of bentonite and gypsum, respectively compared to control. With respect to levels, increasing levels of sulphur significantly increased the grain yield of maize from 33.02 to 48.56 q ha-1 with rise in sulphur level of 10 to 50 kg ha-1. Among the treatment combinations 50 kg S ha-1 through Bentonite recorded significantly higher grain yield of 48.56 q ha-1 compared to other treatment combinations but was on par with treatment receiving 40 kg S ha-1 through Bentonite (45.64 q ha-1). The lowest yield was recorded under control (32.18 q ha-1). A similar trend was followed for growth and yield parameters

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenotypic Traits Diversity in Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook. F)

L. S. Fayeun, A. O. Omikunle, A. A. Famogbiele, O. A. Oyetunde

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/16119

Fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) is an important indigenous leaf and seed vegetable of West Africa. It is among the neglected and underutilized crops with high nutritional, medicinal and industrial potentials. Twenty five genotypes of fluted pumpkin collected from eleven states in Nigeria were planted in the 2012 and 2013 rainy seasons at Abeokuta and Akure to determine the genetic diversity in phenotypic traits among the genotypes. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used and data were collected on growth and yield characters. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Single Linkage Cluster Analysis (SLCA) were employed to analyse the magnitude and pattern of diversity among the genotypes. Efficiency of the techniques in classifying these genotypes was also examined. The first eight PCA axes captured 90.77% of the total variance. The PCA identified marketable leaf yield, vine length, leaf fresh weight, vine fresh weight, leaf area, number of leaves, fruit weight, fruit length, number of seeds and seed weight as most important characters in discriminating the 25 fluted pumpkin genotypes. The genotypes were grouped into six clusters based on their level of similarity by the SLCA. These clusters displayed a wide range of diversity for most of the traits. SLCA proved to be an effective method in grouping the genotypes for efficient breeding programmes. The diverse genotypes identified in the different clusters can be used as parents to achieve heterosis for higher seed and leaf yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

UV-B Radiation Impacts on Growth, Bulb Yield and Antioxidants in Onion under Salt Stress

Yasmin M. R. Abdellatif, Neima K. Al-Senosy

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/43479

Ultraviolet radiation considered one of the environmental stresses that widely disturb most of the physio-biochemical processes in the plant. However, previous studies referred that irradiation of plant tissues with a low dose of UV-B radiation stimulates adaptive mechanisms and providing better protection to other stresses. In this approach, a pot experiment was laid out in the open field during the two growing seasons of 2014/2015 and 2015/2016. Transplants of red onion (Giza 20), six weeks old, were exposed to UV-B (280-320 nm) for 15 min, then grown plants were irrigated with three concentrations of NaCl (0, 50 and 100 mM) as a challenge. The effect of low dose of UV-B was evaluated by determination of vegetative growth characteristics, bulb yield/plant and some biochemical changes associated with UV-B induced tolerance. In general, plants irrigated with 50 and 100 mM of NaCl remarkably expressed a reduction in plant growth, yield and chlorophyll a and b. Flavonoids were significantly reduced under the highest level of salinity. Results showed that plants grown from UV-B treated transplants were less affected by salt stress which was obvious in increasing plant fresh weight, shoot height, number of leaves/plant, leaf length, leaf diameter and neck thickness. Moreover, UV treatment alleviated onion bulb yield in term of fresh bulb weight, bulb length, bulb diameter and harvest index. The enhanced tolerance was noticed by increasing organic osmolytes (free amino acids, reducing sugars and total sugars) and induced antioxidant system (total soluble phenols, carotenoids, flavonoids, peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in onion leaves and anthocyanin in bulbs. Regarding protein electrophoresis, 33% of polymorphism was produced; negative markers were detected by UV + 50 mM NaCl and UV + 100 mM NaCl. While one positive marker was detected by UV +100 mM NaCl at 87.545 kDa which indicated that the interaction between salinity stress and UV-B radiation resulted in plant salt tolerance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Multinutrient (NPKZn) Briquettes on Availability and Movement of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium and Zinc in Soils

B. H. Sunil, M. Pushpalatha, V. D. Patil, V. M. Basavaprasad

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/43252

A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of multinutrient (NPKZn) briquettes on the availability and movement of Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K) and Zinc (Zn) in soils. The experiment was laid out in a Randomised Block Design with five treatments and four replications, conducted at the College of Agriculture Parbhani during the Kharif season of 2015-2016. The movement of nutrient N was maximum in treatment receiving recommended dose of fertilizer through fertigation at all depths followed by the application of briquette in root rhizosphere. The movement of nutrient P was observed at a lower magnitude, however, the P movement was maximum in soluble fertilizers and briquettes. The mobility rate of K, was reduced due to the synergetic effect of the slow release of N and Zn. The Zn content was more at 15 and 30 cm depth as compared to 30 cm distance from the plant. The movement of Zn was found to be the highest in the treatment which received soluble fertilizer. The maximum value of P and K were observed in treatments which received soluble fertilizer and the treatment receiving an application of NPK through briquette was found significantly superior over all other treatments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Improvement of Rice Husk Residue Silicon Availability for Replenishing Available Silicon in Paddy Soil

Ifeoma Monica Nwajiaku, Kuniaki Sato, Takeo Tokunari, Shigeru Kitano, Tsugiyuki Masunaga

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/43220

Increasing agricultural land area has proven beyond every reasonable doubt that it is not the solution to low yield in agricultural produce. Soil management strategies could improve the productivity and also enhance sustainability. Today’s soil management strategies depend solely on inorganic chemical-based fertilizer which is inaccessible to many small-scale farmers, due to its high cost. The use of rice husk biochar (RHB) from rice husk residue (RH), produced through the process of pyrolysis, could be one of the possible cost-effective soil management strategies in rice-based farming system. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted in the Experimental Glasshouse, Shimane University, Japan (35°29´14.30N and 133°04´07.92E) during the summer season (June to September 2017) to investigate how changes in nutrient compositions of RH pyrolyzed at different temperatures (300°C, 400°C, 500°C, 600°C and 700°C) influence rice plant agronomic parameters, soil available silica and plant silica uptake. The experimental units were replicated three times and arranged in a completely randomized design. The RH and RHB used were slightly acidic to alkaline (6.8 – 10.7). They contained elevated nutrients in comparison to the soil. The RHB treatments were found not to have much influence on the plant agronomic parameters this time. The soil available silicon after harvest could be improved or at least maintained with RHB treatments. For instance, RHB at 400°C increased the soil available Si by 61% compared to the original content (93.8 mg SiO2 pot-1). This implies that RHB could create a potential biogenic silicon pool in a paddy field. The RHBs increased soil Si availability for rice growth through an increment of plant Si uptake and soil available Si against the control. The highest increment against the control during the cropping season was found in RHB at 500°C (455.9 mg SiO2 pot-1).  Finally, charring of RH by controlling the heating temperatures is an effective way of improving RH as Si amendment.