Open Access Original Research Article

Fast and Easy Protocol of DNA Extraction from Fresh and Hard/Dried Plant Samples of Indian Spices

Sudeep Nagaraj, Ragunandana Girenahalli, Praveen Kumar Kondenahalli Subbarayappa, Jagadish Tavarekere Venkataravanappa

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/44061

Spices identified using basic techniques like magnifying glasses or microscopic instruments. The DNA based spice detection techniques used in food testing labs for the disclosure of adulterants. The molecular techniques like PCR, Sequencing, and HRM etc. enables the exact disclosure of spices. Plants synthesize more amounts of polysaccharides, flavonoids, polyphenols and other secondary metabolites which interfere with the pure and high-quality genomic DNA extraction. Although plant DNA isolation protocols, extracting DNA from dried plant samples is a challenging task. This present research describes an expeditious, reliable SDS buffer protocol suited for extracting DNA from both fresh and dried plants samples rich in polysaccharides and secondary metabolites, and the protocol does not need toxic chemicals like phenols and use of liquid nitrogen. Extracted DNA showed the excellent purity evidenced by UV spectrometer at the ratio of A260/A280 ranging from approximately 1.8-1.85 and the A260/A230 ratio was approximately 2, which explains the preparations are sufficiently free from proteins and polysaccharides. The developed method is satisfactory for both dry and fresh spice samples. The success of the present study is getting high-quality genomic DNA and helps to carry out DNA based experiments with a shorter duration of time.

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Open Access Original Research Article

Urochloa Cultivated in Soil with Aluminium: A Development and Stomatal Approach

Lucas Aparecido Manzani Lisboa, Gustavo Henrique de Oliveira Dias, Kauê Barbarotto Ribeiro, Hiago Augusto Amaral Sacco, João Vitor Rodrigues Padovan, Gabriel Banos Rodrigues, Gabriel Geminiano da Silva, Alan dos Santos Cardoso, Leandro Barradas Pereira, Cássia Regina de Avelar Gomes

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/44180

Some Brazilian soils present low fertility, acidity and also toxicity caused by the presence of aluminium, leading to a lower development of forages. In view of the above, this work aimed to know Urochloa cultivated in soil with aluminium: a development and stomatal approach. The experimental design was a factorial of 3x5, with three cultivars of Urochloa brizantha: Marandu; Paiaguás and Piatã, and five concentrations of aluminium in the soil: 2.0; 4.0; 8.0; 16.0 and 32.0 mmol dm-3 of Al, with four replications, a total of 60 plots. Sixty days after the harvest the following parameters were set: number of leaves (NF); plant height (PH); dry mass of the aerial part (DMAP). The lower or abaxial epidermal impression of the fragments collected using cyanoacrylate ester was used to determine: Stomata Density (SD) and stomatal functionality (SF). The presence of aluminium in the soil negatively influenced the development of plants. All Urochloa cultivars presented similar responses as exposed to different doses of aluminium in the soil. Doses above 2.0 mmol of aluminium in the soil harmed the development of U. brizantha. The cultivar Marandu presented the highest number of leaves and presented better development

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Fertility Evaluation under Different Land Use System in Tropical Humid Region of Kerala, India

M. Chandrakala, M. Ramesh, K. Sujatha, Rajendra Hegde, S. K. Singh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/40099

Aims: To know the fertility status of soils of the Elamdesam block.

Place and Duration of Study: Soil samples were brought from Elamdesam block, Idukki district, Kerala, India in the year 2016 and laboratory characterization was done in National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Regional Centre, Hebbal, Bangalore.

Methodology: Based on the different land use type, composite soil samples were collected randomly from 0 to 20 cm depth. Soils were processed and analyzed for soil reaction, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, available major (Available NPK), secondary (Ca, Mg and S) and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu, B). Mean values for all the nutrients under different land uses were calculated for comparison. Soil testing rating chart was further used to separate soils for interpretation under various categories.

Results: Results revealed that soils are very strongly acidic in reaction. Organic carbon content is high in all samples. Phosphorus content varied from low to medium and potassium content was very low to medium. Available calcium and magnesium were very low and sulphur was medium. The copper content was adequate and zinc and boron were a deficit. Among land uses, pineapple land uses recorded highest EC (0.10 dS m-1), available P (82.19 kg ha-1), K (196.32 kg ha-1) and S (11.49 ppm) whereas paddy soils recorded highest pH (5.08), Ca (264.33 ppm), Fe (98.70 ppm), Cu (3.95 ppm) and B (0.32 ppm). Similarly, rubber growing soils have the highest Mn (6.92 ppm) whereas oil palm soils have highest organic carbon (2.80%). Banana land uses the highest EC (0.10 dS m-1) and Zn (1.26 ppm) and coconut soils have highest Mg (34.96 ppm).

Conclusion: Soil fertility is one of the important factors controlling the crop yields. There is a need for correcting deficiencies of nutrients for sustained crop production. Thus, evaluating and assessing nutrient status is a must under various land use systems in order to recommend soil and crop specific nutrients.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Screening and Molecular Genetic Markers Associated with Salt Tolerance in Potato

Md. Hasan Sofiur Rahman, Md. Ashraful Haque, Md. Altaf Hossain, Dipali Rani Gupta, Md. Mazadul Islam

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/43335

Aims: The main aim of this study was to screen potato germplasms for salt tolerance and to find out the suitable molecular markers associated with salt tolerance in potato lines.

Experimental Design: The present experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and replicated thrice.

Experimental Site: The experiment was conducted at the plant molecular laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Salna, Gazipur and Tissue culture laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur, Bangladesh.

Methodology: In vitro screening of eight potato lines viz. CIP 101, CIP 102, CIP 111, CIP 112, CIP 117, CIP 124, CIP 134, CIP 139 along with two popular potato varieties namely Asterix and Diamant were used to screen for salt tolerance at different levels of NaCl concentration (0, 2, 4, 6 and 9 dS/m). MS20 medium was used as a culture media with different concentration of NaCl where single node cuttings (SNC) from the collected plant materials were transferred accordingly. Minute observations on shoot length, root length, leaf area, shoot dry weight, and root dry weight were documented periodically.

A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based approach, namely random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was applied to the selected lines and varieties of potato in order to assess the degree of salt tolerance.

Results: Perusal of the tables revealed a significant variation among the potato lines and varieties. Shoot length, root length, leaf area, shoot dry weight, and root dry weight was decreased with the increase of salt concentration in the used medium. Banding pattern of RAPD confirmed a distinct polymorphism between salt tolerant, moderately salt tolerant and salt sensitive lines. The clustering pattern of the potato genotypes in this study suggests that, the salt tolerance and salt sensitivity of some potato lines are due to the genotypic variation and possibly not for the epigenetic adaptation under salt stress condition.

Comparing the mean value of growth parameters using ANOVA and from RAPD marker analysis, total ten potato genotypes can be classified as follows: the salt tolerant (CIP 102, CIP 112 and CIP 139), the moderately salt tolerant (CIP 111, CIP 124, CIP 134, Asterix and Diamant) and the salt sensitive lines (CIP 101, CIP 117).

Conclusion: The salt tolerant potato lines (CIP 102, CIP 112 and CIP 139) of the present experiment can be used for future breeding programs to develop salt tolerant potato variety.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Pigeon Pea and Di-ammonium Phosphate (DAP) Fertilizer on Maize Growth and Yield in a Maize-pigeon Pea Intercropping System

H. Mwajoha, J. K. Mwololo, S. Muti

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/43699

Since most subsistence farmers are poorly endowed with resources and capital to buy farm inputs such as fertilizers, developing an integrated soil fertility management strategy in maize cropping systems would contribute to enhanced food security through improved crop productivity. Intercropping maize and pigeon pea is considered to be a good option since pigeon pea is drought-tolerant, can fix nitrogen and uses its deep root system to recycle important minerals such as iron from horizons inaccessible by most shallow rooted crops. The study was conceived to investigate the effects of pigeon pea and Di-ammonium phosphate fertilizer on maize growth and yields in a maize-pigeon pea intercrop.The research was conducted at Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO) research station in Mtwapa (39° 219’E, 4° 347’S) and Pwani University Crop Science farm (39° 44’E and 3° 50’S).The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments included application of diammonium phospshate (DAP) fertilizer and two pigeon pea as an intercrop with maize in spatial variation. The following parameters were measured: maize plant height using a tape measure, number of maize plants per plot, number of cobs per plot and maize grain yield using a weighing scale. The data collected was subjected to analysis of variance using SAS statistical software and means separated using Fisher’s Least Significant difference at 5% level of significance. From the study, it was evident that pigeon pea had effects on maize plant height especially where DAP fertilizer was not applied which resulted in taller maize plants. Where fertilizer was applied, maize plants were shorter. However, intercropping of maize with pigeon pea did not have any significant effects on the number of maize cobs and yields