Open Access Short communication

Effects of Phytohormones on Reversing the Inhibitory Action of Aflatoxin B1 on the Growth of Maize Seeds (Zea mays L.)

Ganjendra Prasad, Vijendra Kumar Mishra, Nitu Kumari

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/40097

The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of phytohormones namely gibberellic acid (GA3) and kinetin on aflatoxins B1 treated maize seeds var madhuri-01. Maize seeds were treated with aflatoxins B1 separately and in combination of phytohormones at a concentration of 2.0 ppm each.  Reversal of inhibitory effect of aflatoxin B1 on the seed germination, root, shoot length, chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid of maize seed in presence of phytohormone was observed. The inhibitory effect of aflatoxins B1, on seed germination, root length, shoot length, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid content were 78.57%, 65.03%, 63%, 74%, 72% and 85%, respectively. However, when the maize seeds were treated in combination of aflatoxins B1 with kinetin and aflatoxin B1 with GA3, reversal of the inhibitory effect of aflatoxin B1 was observed to great extent. Taken together, the reversal of phytoinhibitory effect of aflatoxin B1 by GA3 and kinetin could be of agricultural significance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Diversity of Selected Upland Rice Genotypes (Oryza sativa L.) for Grain Yield and Related Traits

Christian Anyaoha, Felix Adegbehingbe, Uyokei Uba, Bosede Popoola, Vernon Gracen, Semon Mande, Ejiro Onotugoma, Mamadou Fofana

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/40406

Seventy-seven upland rice genotypes including popular cultivars in Nigeria and introduced varieties selected from across rice-growing regions of the world were evaluated under optimal upland ecology. These genotypes were characterised for 10 traits and the quantitative data subjected to Pearson correlation matrix, Principal Component Analysis and cluster analysis to determine the level of diversity and degree of association existing between grain yield and its related component traits. Yield and most related component traits exhibited higher PCV compared to growth parameters. Yield had the highest PCV (41.72%) while all other parameters had low to moderate GCV. Genetic Advance (GA) ranged from 9.88% for plant height at maturity to 41.08% for yield. High heritability estimates were recorded for 1000 grain weight (88.71%), days to 50% flowering (86.67%) and days to 85% maturity (71.98%). Furthermore, grain yield showed significant positive correlation with days to 50% flowering and number of panicles m-2. Three cluster groups were obtained based on the UPGMA and the first three principal components explained about 64.55% of the total variation among the 10 characters. The PCA results suggests that characters such as grain yield, days to flowering, leaf area and plant height at maturity were the principal discriminatory traits for this rice germplasm indicating that selection in favour of these traits might be effective in this population and environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Cost Effective and Biologically Efficient Cropping Systems and Their Economics

Rentapalli Balaji, Karam Husain, Aman Kumar Pandey, Prabhakara Reddy Kallam

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/41011

Aim:  Comparative evaluation of various cropping systems and assessment of their economics.

Study Design: Descriptive statistics was used and each treatment was replicated quadruple times using randomized block design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of agronomy, CSA University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India from 2016-2018.

Methodology: We undertaken traditional cropping systems to find out the efficient cropping systems in terms of economic value.

We implemented randomized block design in the field level to layout the different crops according to the various seasons in terms of space and time. Various inputs like water, fertilizers, chemicals etc. applied accordingly as per their recommendation. Different types of cultural practices are implemented to fulfil the crop needs. Timely samples are drawn from all the crops to analyze the characteristics of their biological yield. The final value of crops are computed as per their market price.

Results: Among the five different cropping systems Hyb. Rice- Potato recorded the highest net monetary return of Rs. 87954.80 ha-1 followed by Maize-Potato (Rs. 64888.50 ha-1), Rice- Wheat (Rs.39262.40 ha-1), Maize-Wheat (Rs.34884.00 ha-1) and Maize -Mustard (Rs.13122.50 ha-1).

Conclusion: On the basis of overall productivity biological efficiency and economic return it may infer that Hyb. Rice-Potato crop sequence is treated as best biologically efficient system, if adopted by the farmers can go a long way in enhancing the productivity return.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Physical Properties and Groundnut (Arachis hypogae L.) Yield under Long­ Term Application of Manure and Fertilizers under Rainfed Condition

D. Salma, K. Venkaiah, M. V. S. Naidu, Y. Reddi Ramu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/40859

In the long term experiment of continuous use of various inorganic fertilizers and manure in an alfisol the status of soil physical properties their deterioration and improvement in the soil and crop yield of groundnut were studied during kharif 2015 being conducted at Regional Agricultural Station, Tirupati. The soil of experimental area was sandy loam in texture, slightly acidic, non-saline, low in organic carbon content. Results showed that physical properties like porosity, maximum water holding capacity, mean weight diameter, geometric mean diameter, per cent water stable aggregates (>0.25 mm) were recorded highest with the application of FYM@ 5 t ha-1 followed by the different treatments receiving gypsum, lime, ZnSO4 in combination with NPK nutrients over the control. However, infiltration rate, saturated hydraulic conductivity were recorded higher in control plot followed by the FYM alone treated plot. The application of NPK (20:10:25 kg ha-1) + lime (100 kg ha-1) recorded highest pod yield of 1950.75 kg ha-1 which was on par with NPK+gypsum, NPK+gypsum+ZnSO4, NPK and FYM alone treated plot. Thus, the balanced use of fertilizers continuously either in combination with other nutrient source or with organic manuring is necessary for improving soil physical properties and yield of groundnut under rainfed conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stability of Aggregates and the Processes that Help in Their Formation and Stabilization

Andréia da Paz Schiller, Jéssica Manfrin, Daniele Cristina Schons Eckhardt, Edleusa Pereira Seidel, Maria do Carmo Lana, Affonso Celso Gonçalves Jr, Marinez Carpiski Sampaio, Carlos Augusto Rocha de Moraes Rego

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/41056

Several soil functions depend on their physical properties, such as, soil structure, porosity, and the distribution of aggregates. Despite the importance that aggregates have, little is known about the dynamics and the behavior during their formation and stabilization. In this way, the present study aimed to gather information about the formation, and the maintenances of aggregates stability, searching factors that influence in their aggregation, aiming to provide information to understand the dynamics of the formation of these aggregates in soil. It was observed several physical, chemical and biological processes, such as the wetting and drying processes, organic matter contents, quantity of iron and aluminum oxides, clays, root system of plants and the activity of organisms and microorganisms, as well as the interrelations between them. It was also observed that the removal of vegetation coverage and insertion of agricultural crops are factors that influences significantly in the conditions of the aggregates present in soil. Moreover, some conservation practices of land use and management may increase the stability of the aggregates in relation to the conventional managements, such as no-tillage, crop husbandry integration, rotations and successions of crops, which positively influences the aggregation and stabilization of the aggregates. Therefore, the aforementioned processes, allied to the adoption of conservation and use practices can promote sustainability and improve the quality of agricultural soils, as well as being able to generate benefits in productivity, a factor so much important today.