Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Soil Test Crop Response Approach on Yield, Nutrient Content and Uptake by Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Naresh Kumari, Sushil Kumar Kharia, Rameshwr Lal Mandeewal, Mahendra Kumar Rojh, Anita Yadav, Sonu Kumari

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1430985

A field experiment was carried out during Rabi season of 2018-19 under AICRP project on Soil Test Crop Response at Agricultural Research Station, Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner to find out the effect of soil test crop response approach on yield, nutrient content and uptake of wheat. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with five treatment combinations viz. general recommendation dose, soil test crop response recommendation for target yield 30 q ha-1, soil test crop response recommendation for target yield 30 q ha-1 with integrated plant nutrient system, soil test crop response recommendation for target yield 40 q ha-1 and soil test crop response recommendation for target yield 40 q ha-1 with integrated plant nutrient system with four replications. Research finding of long term field experiment revealed that application of soil test crop response recommendation for target yield 40 q ha-1 with integrated plant nutrient system gave maximum number of effective tillers m-1 row length, spike length, number of grains spike-1, weight of grains spike-1, test weight, grain yield (4026 kg ha-1) and straw yield (5629 kg ha-1) of wheat which was found statistically at par with soil test crop response recommendation for target yield 30 q ha-1 with integrated plant nutrient system. Application of soil test crop response recommendation for target yield 40 q ha-1 with integrated plant nutrient system also improved the N, P and K content and their uptake by grain and straw of wheat. These study results proved that soil test crop response recommendation with integrated plant nutrient system gave better results of all parameters in the comparison of general recommendation dose and soil test crop response without integrated plant nutrient system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) Var ABV-04 as Influenced by Nitrogen & Phosphorus Effects on Growth Parameters and Yield

Mannepu Venkata Sai Ganesh, Rajesh Singh, Vangala Siva Nagi Reddy, Maddiboina Banu Manindhar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 7-12
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1430986

Background: Pearl millet can grow in a variety of environments. Pearl millet is a viable alternative to sorghum in areas where it cannot thrive. When it comes to soil moisture utilisation and heat tolerance, sorghum and maize cannot compete with pearl millet.

Objectives: Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus on growth parameters and yield of pearl millet

Methods: With the goal of studying the effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on growth and yield of Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) Var. ABV - 04 under a Randomized block design with 9 treatments (T1-T9) The experimental results revealed that 120 kg N/ha + 60 kg P/ha produced maximum plant height (214.37), plant dry weight (46.74) and yield parameters ear head length (20.77 cm), number of grains/ear head (1972.0), grain yield (2.68 t/ha), and stover yield (3.77).

Conclusion: The combination of 120 kg nitrogen/ha and 60 kg phosphorus/ha proved to be the most advantageous to farmers, resulting in 214.37-cm plant height, 46.74-gm plant dry weight, 1972 grains per ear head, and 2.68 ta grain and 3.26 ta stover yields, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Fertilizer Levels and Foliar Nutrition on Growth and Yield of Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill)

T. Warpe Sarika, Jakku Prasanna, D. A. Sonawane, P. B. Ghodke, S. P. Ubale

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 13-18
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1430987

Improper nutrition being the major constraint of soybean fields in the state of Maharashtra, an investigation entitled “Effect of fertilizer levels and foliar nutrition on growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill)” was conducted during Kharif  2019 at Agronomy farm, College of Agriculture, Pune. The seven treatment combinations were laid out in factorial randomized block design and was replicated thrice. The results revealed that application of 100% GRDF has recorded significantly higher all the growth and yield contributing characters viz., plant height (58.94 cm), number of branches plant-1(6.67), leaf area plant-1 (29.10 dm2), dry matter plant-1 (24.30 g), number of pods plant-1 (62.80), number of seeds pod-1 (2.46), seed weight plant-1 (29.87 g), seed and straw yield (21.73 and 29.63 q ha-1, respectively). From the treatments chosen for the investigation, 1% foliar spray application with 19:19:19 recorded significantly higher growth and yield contributing characters namely, plant height (59.46 cm), number of branches plant-1 (6.95), leaf area (10.63 dm2), dry matter plant-1 (26.07 g), number of pods plant-1 (68.25), number of seeds pod-1 (2.70), seed weight plant-1(35.37 g), grain and straw yield (25.53 and 33.51 q ha-1, respectively).

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Homobrassinolide and Salicylic Acid on the Vegetative Growth of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea., L) Plants Subjected to Cadmium Stress

J. Vasudev, B. Vidya Vardhini

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 48-54
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1430989

The present study was carried out to study the role of homobrassinolide (HomoBL) and salicylic acid (SA) on vegetative growth of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea., L.) wherein field experiments were conducted with foliar spraying of 2µM and 3µM HomoBL  and 1mM and 2mM SA on 20th, 30th, 45th and 60th DAS (Days after sowing). Observations on vegetative parameters like root and shoot length, root and shoot fresh weights, root and shoot dry weights, foliage showed that application of HomoBL and SA were capable of successfully mitigating cadmium stress (100 µM) as well as enhancing the vegetative growth of groundnut.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Yield, Economics and Post-harvest Soil Properties of Sweet Corn Grown under Mid-Central Table Land Zone of Odisha

Meenakhi Prusty, Debashish Swain, M. A. Alim, Monika Ray, Debadatta Sethi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 55-61
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1430990

Sweet corn (Zea mays var. saccharata), popularly known as sugar corn or pole corn is a specialty maize having high sugar content at milk or early dough stage. As the corn is considered as an exhaustive crop, requires more nutrient, so integrated nutrient management practices play an important role in sustaining productivity of sweet corn. A field experiment was conducted during 2019 and 2020 in order to study the effect of integrated nutrient management on sweet corn yield and post harvest soil properties. Different growth parameters like plant height (206 cm), cob length (28.5 cm), cob girth (16.43 cm), no of seed rows per cob (18.80), no of grains per row (47.55)  and green cob  wt. (335.43g) were found highest in integrated package where bio fertilizer consortia, B and Zn  were applied along with STD fertilization (T6). Total harvested yield of sweet corn including stover (2.58 to 2.98 t ha-1) and kernel (1.33 to 2.37t ha-1) varied from 3.91 to 5.35 t ha-1 in different treatments and was observed highest in T6 (5.35 t ha-1). Harvest index (44.29%), B: C ratio (3.15) and 1000 kernel weight (198.90 g) was also recorded highest in treatment T6. The post- harvest soil properties were also recorded highest in T6 where bio fertilizer consortia, B and Zn were applied along with STD fertilization in the INM package.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Yield and Economics of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) as Influenced by Spacing and Foliar Application of Zinc

Gali Haritha, Rajesh Singh, Thakur Indu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 62-67
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1430991

Background: Sesame plants thrive in hot, dry weather. It is widely naturalized in tropical regions around the world and is cultivated for its edible seeds. The oil content of the seed is inversely proportional to its protein content. Most commercial cultivars of sesame are intolerant of water-logging.

The objective of the present experiment was to analyze the influence of spacing and application of zinc using foliar method on growth, yield and economics of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) during kharif season of 2021. The experiment was designed with varying combination of spacing and zinc using the Randomized Block Design which produced nine treatments with three replicates each. The treartment combinations are  T1 – 25 cm X 15 cm + 0.25% ZnSO4, T2 – 25 cm X 15 cm + 0.50% ZnSO4, T3- 25 cm X 15 cm + 0.75% ZnSO4, T4- 35 cm X 15 cm + 0.25% ZnSO4, T5 – 35 cm X 15 cm + 0.50% ZnSO4, T6 – 35 cm X 15 cm + 0.75% ZnSO4, T7- 40 cm X 10 cm + 0.25% ZnSO4, T8- 40 cm X 10 cm + 0.50% ZnSO4, T9 – 40 cm X 10 cm + 0.75% ZnSO4.  The combination, T9 with spacing 40 X 10 cm and 0.75% ZnSo4 recorded maximum number of capsules per plant (54.60), number of seeds per capsule (60.50), seed yield (1.20 t/ha), harvest index (31.89 %). The application of treatment T9 40 cm X 10 cm + 0.75% ZnSO4  recorded higher net return (52,016.00 INR/ha), gross return (78,217.00 INR/ha) and benefit: cost ratio (1.99) as well.

Conclusion: 40 cm X 10 cm + ZnSo4 – 0.75 %, had the highest results for yield characteristics such has grain yield (1.20 t/ha), gross return (78,217.00 INR/ha), net return (52,016.00 INR/ha) and benefit: cost ratio (1.99).

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Age of Seedlings and Nitrogen Levels on Growth and Yield of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Mohammad Afrose, Rajesh Singh, Thakur Indu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 68-73
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1430992

A field experiment was conducted during the kharif season (2021) at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Allahabad (U.P.). The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture. The treatment consisted of T1­- 14 Days age seedlings + Nitrogen 100 kg/ha, T2- 14 Days age seedlings +Nitrogen 110 kg/ha, T3-14 days age seedlings + Nitrogen 120 kg/ha, T4­- 21 Days age seedlings + Nitrogen 100 kg/ha, T5- 21 Days age seedlings +Nitrogen 110 kg/ha, T6-21 days age seedlings + Nitrogen 120 kg/ha, T7­- 28 Days age seedlings + Nitrogen 100 kg/ha, T8- 28 Days age seedlings +Nitrogen 110 kg/ha, T9-28 days age seedlings + Nitrogen 120 kg/ha. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design, with 9 treatments replicated thrice. Results revealed that maximum plant height(100.40 cm), number of tillers per hill (14.80), plant dry weight(53.06 g/plant), panicle length(32.30 cm), panicle per m2(320), no of panicle per hill (10.70), no of filled grains per panicle (165), test weight(26.40g), grain yield(4.16t/ha), stover yield(6.24t/ha), gross return (INR 1,11,904.00), net return (INR 78,275.400), B:C ratio (2.33) was recorded and significantly influenced with the treatment 21 days age seedlings +Nitrogen 120 kg/ha. Therefore, the treatment 21 days age seedlings + Nitrogen 120kg/ha was found more productive and cost effective.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Different Glomus Species on Growth and Survival of Acacia nilotica Seedlings

K. S. Ahlawat, S. K. Dhanda, Rakesh Chugh, Satish Kumar Mehta, Chhavi Sirohi, V. Dalal, P. Poonia

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 74-81
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1430993

Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Del, commonly known as babul, kikar belongs to family Leguminosae and is recognized as a multipurpose tree. It helps in improving soil fertility, increasing the activity of symbiotic microorganisms and providing various commercial benefits. The raising of high quality kikar seedlings is necessary to establish a good plantation and the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in soil becomes imminent in raising of seedlings under nursery. The effect of three different species of Glomus spp. (G. mosseae, G. intraradices and G. fasciculatum) of AMF inoculated soil with Acacia nilotica seeds were observed in the nursery during 2018-2019 and 2019-2020. These AMF were applied at 400-500 sporocarp/kg of soil at sowing time and evaluated for their performance on the growth parameters, survival percentage, root colonization (%) and number of sporocarps. The experiment was laid out as completely randomized design, replicated three times with twenty seedlings per replication. The results revealed that among three Glomus species, the shoot length of 60.75 (2018-2019) and 59.80 cm (2019-2020) was the significantly high in soils inoculated with G. intraradices as compared to check (uninoculated). The root length of seedlings was also significantly higher when seeds were sown in soil inoculated with G. intraradices followed by G. fasciculatum inoculated soil. The plant biomass was recorded significantly high when seeds were sown in soil infested with G. intraradices (23.77 g) followed by G. fasciculatum (21.57 g) and minimum in the G. mosseae (20.20 g) among Glomus spp. during 2019-2020. The seedlings survival was 81.53 and 85.79 % in soils inoculated with G. intraradices followed by 74.65 and 79.01 % in G. fasciculatum during 2018-2019 and 2019-2020, respectively and all the treatments differed significantly as compared to check. A significant higher root colonization (20.35 and 19.16 %) and number of sporocarps (28.0 and 26.51 /per 100 g of soil) at 150 DAS were recorded in soils inoculated with G. intraradices followed by G. fasciculatum.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on In vitro Seed Germination and Seedling Development of Tuberose (Agave amica Medik.)

M. Bhuvana, P. Aruna, N. Manikanda Boopathi, M. Ganga, R. Ravikesavan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 82-91
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1430994

Agave amica (Medik.) (Syn. Polianthes tuberosa L.) is commercially propagated asexually. For the diversification of the crop, seed propagation is essential hence there is a necessity to study the seed germination for hybrid development.  A protocol for in vitro germination of tuberose seeds was formulated. Two types of seed were utilized for germination in which the decoated seeds showed early and higher germination percentage than the intact seeds. Seeds inoculated on the basal media composition of half MS with gibberellic acid (1 mg/l) and benzylaminopurine (1 mg/l) recorded minimum time for germination (8 days), higher germination percentage (89.33%) and minimum mean germination time (8.88 days). Seedlings growth were studied under different composition of shoot and root proliferation media. The MS media with naphthaleneacetic acid (2 mg/l) and benzylaminopurine (2 mg/l) increased root length (12.33 cm), shoot length (14.80 cm), number of roots (13.23) and number of leaves (6.25). Under in vivo condition, the seedling developed from the basal media composition of half MS with gibberellic acid (1 mg/l) and benzylaminopurine (1 mg/l) which sub cultured on MS media with naphthaleneacetic acid (2 mg/l) and benzylaminopurine (2 mg/l) showed higher survival percentage of 91.53%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Invasive Weed Biochar Mixed with Inorganic Fertilizer on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Semi-arid Region of India

Payal Choudhary, Mahendra Prasad, Mukesh Choudhary, Awanish Kumar, Sonu Kumar Mahawer, R. Srinivasan, Sunil Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 92-98
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1430995

The application of different forms of organic material is a traditional strategy used to sustain soil fertility by replenishing soil organic matter (SOM) and enhancing nutrient profile for crops. This study focuses on the comparative efficacy of biochar prepared from locally available invasive weed biomass (Parthenium hysterophorus L. and Lantana camara L.) with or without inorganic fertilization on soil properties and nutrient availability in post harvested soils. Results revealed that soil bulk density (BD) was significantly decreased with application of biochar @ 5 t ha-1 and 10 t ha-1 along with 75% RDF (Recommended dose of fertilizers) as compared to control while water holding capacity (WHC) significantly increased in the range of 18.40-32.78% as compared to RDF by the application of Parthenium hysterophorus L. and Lantana camara L. biochar @ 2.5 t ha-1, 5.0 t ha-1 and 10.0 t ha-1 along with 75% RDF. It was also observed that Parthenium hysterophorus L. and Lantana camara L. biochar along with 75% RDF addition to soil increased SOC (5.17 g kg-1 to 7.99 g kg-1) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) by 3.36-37.14% as compared with control, depending on the quantity of biochar application. Similar trends were also reported in case of available macro and micro nutrients in the post harvest soil. Therefore, application of invasive weed biochar with inorganic fertilization is considered as promising  strategy for improve physical and chemical properties of soils and soil health in semi-arid ecosystem.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Properties Influenced by the Foliar Application of Nano Fertilizers in Maize (Zea mays L.) Crop

Neha Khardia, R. H. Meena, Gajanand Jat, Sonal Sharma, Hansa Kumawat, Surendra Dhayal, Ajit Kumar Meena, Kriti Sharma

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 99-111
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1430996

The aim of this present investigation is to study the effect of foliar application of nano fertilizers N, Zn and Cu on soil properties including chemical and biological properties after harvest of maize (Zea mays L.) crop. The field experiment was carried out during June-October 2020 season at Instructional Farm, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, MPUAT, Udaipur which lies in agro-climatic zone IV-a of Rajasthan, India. The field was designed in a randomized block design having 12 treatments which were replicated thrice. The treatments include the various combination of conventional and nano fertilizers of N, Zn and Cu. The result showed that the plots treated with nano fertilizers found better nutrient and biological status in post harvest soil. The foliar application of two sprays of Nano N + Nano Zn + Nano Cu at 21 and 42 days after sowing (DAS) plus 50% N and Zn through conventional fertilizers along with 100% PK (T12) significantly (P=.05) increased the availability of macronutrients (N and K), micronutrients (Zn and Cu), microbial population (bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes) as well as the dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase enzyme activity in post harvest soil of maize over control. The result of this investigation shows that 50% recommended dose of conventional fertilizers can be reduced by 2 sprays of nano fertilizers which reduces the harmful effects of conventional fertilizers and maintained the soil health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Yield and Yield Attributes of Capsicum annum as Influenced by Coloured Shade Net and Shading Intensity

Pankaj Kumar Kaswan, Ramesh Kumar, Ashok Choudhary, Bhuwanesh Didal, Gulab Choudhary, A. K. Singh, Harish Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 112-116
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1430997

An experiment was conducted at the Precision Farming Development Centre, ARS, Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner during 2015-16 to -2017-18 on loamy sand soil. The experiment comprised of four coloured shade net viz., green, red, white and black and three shading intensity (35%, 50% and 75%) under Factorial Randomized Block Design (FRBD) with three replications. Based on the three season pooled data the result revealed that capsicum gave maximum average fruit weight (86.77 g), average fruit length (25.91) and yield (558.24 q/ha) in red color shade net which is significantly higher over green and black colored shade net and remained at par with white colored shade net. Whereas, in shading intensity the maximum average fruit weight (87.14 g), average fruit length (26.15) and yield (542.44 q/ha) of capsicum was recorded with 50 percent of shading intensity which is closely followed by 75 percent shading intensity and significantly higher over 35 percent shading intensity. From the study it can be concluded that red coloured shade net with 50 per cent shading intensity would be ideal for cultivation of capsicum crops under protected conditions of shade net.

Open Access Original Research Article

Conservation Agriculture- Based Planting Techniques and Weed Management Practices Influence on Nutrient Content and Their Uptake in Dry Direct-Seeded Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Brijesh Kumar Chaudhary, J. P. Singh, S. K. Verma, Harsita Nayak, Shiv Poojan Yadav

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 117-124
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1430998

Conventionally established rice leads to major challenges in crop production like soil health degradation, water table declination and labour scarcity which ultimately increases the cost of production. To address these issues of transplanted rice, different conservation agriculture (CA) based crop establishment practices in combination with suitable weed management options were incorporated to sustain rice productivity. The field trial was conducted for two years during kharif season of 2018 and 2019 at Research Farm, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh (India). The experiment was laid out in split plot design having four planting techniques in main plots viz., farmer’s practice (Conventional Transplanting), zero-till direct seeded rice (ZT-DSR), reduced-till direct seeded rice (RT-DSR) (Rotavator single pass) and conventional-till direct seeded rice (CT-DSR) and five weed management practices viz., pendimethalin 1 kg ha-1 pre-emergence (PE) followed by (fb) chlorimuron + metsulfuron (4g + 4g ha-1) at 20 days after sowing (DAS), pendimethalin 1 kg ha-1 PE fb pyrazosulfuron (30 g ha-1) at 20 DAS, bispyribac-sodium + chlorimuron + metsulfuron (25g + 4g  + 4g ha-1) at 20 DAS, hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS and Weedy check in sub-plots and replicated thrice. The results showed that Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K) content in grain and straw were not significantly influenced by planting techniques and weed management practices. However, among various crop establishment methods CT-DSR recorded significantly higher N, P and K uptake by both grain and straw over rest of the treatments except ZT-DSR during both the years.  Similarly, two hands weeding (at 20 DAS and 40 DAS) recorded the highest N, P and K uptake by the crop. With respect to herbicidal treatments, higher N, P and K uptake by crop was found with the application of pendimethalin 1 kg ha-1 (pre-em) fb  chlorimuron + metsulfuron (4g + 4g ha-1) at 20 DAS compared to others during both the years of experimentation. Based on the results, it is concluded that application of pendimethalin 1 kg ha-1 PE fb chlorimuron + metsulfuron (4g + 4g ha-1) at 20 DAS to CT-DSR was registered maximum N, P and K uptake by both grain and straw of rice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Phosphorus and Zinc on Yield and Economics of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.)

Vangala Siva Nagi Reddy, Rajesh Singh, Thakur Indu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 125-129
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1430999

Phosphorus and zinc effects on pearl millet variety 'ABV-04' during the rainy season (Kharif) of 2021 were studied in field experiments with nine treatments, i.e., P at 30, 40, 50 kg/ha and Zn at 5, 15 and 25 kg/ha respectively, at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, SHUATS, Prayagraj, India (U.P). The treatments comprised T1 – 30 kg P/ha + 5 kg Zn/ha, T2 – 30 kg P/ha + 15 kg Zn/ha, T3 – 30 kg P/ha + 25 kg Zn/ha, T4 – 40 kg P/ha + 5 kg Zn/ha, T5 – 40 kg P/ha + 15 kg Zn/ha, T6 – 40 kg P/ha + 25 kg Zn/ha, T7 – 50 kg P/ha + 5 kg Zn/ha, T8- 50 kg P/ha + 15 kg Zn/ha, T9 – 50 kg P/ha + 25 kg Zn/ha. Results revealed that the application of 50 kg P + 25 kg Zn recorded highest ear head length (18.90 cm), maximum grain production (2.66 t/ha), maximum stover yield (3.90 t/ha), highest gross and net returns of (1,33,667.00₹) and (92,861.00₹), respectively. b.c ratio (2.26) was also found.

Open Access Review Article

Management of Lepidopteran Insect Pests through Entomopathogenic Nematodes: An Overview

Gitanjali Devi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 19-47
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i1430988

Lepidopteran pest cause significant loss in quantity and quality of produced in many agricultural and horticultural crops. Therefore management strategies should aim to reduce their population below threshold level. Though chemical pesticides are recommended for controlling these insect pests, biocontrol agents are mostly recommended in IPM programme.The most important bio-control agent is the entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). This review discusses the bioefficacy of some of important species of entomopathogenic nematodes against various lepidopteran insect pests.