Open Access Short communication

Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek): Progress in Breeding and Future Challenges

Anil Kumar, P. Yadav, . Seema, R. R. Kumar, A. Kushwaha, Md. H. Rashid, N. Tarannum, S. Chakraborty

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 50-59
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i330846

Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek) is a short duration farmer preferred warm-season pulse crop. The crop has shown a balanced growth worldwide, especially in developing countries. Mungbean being a great source of protein with higher folate and iron levels attracts high demand and price on the market making the farmers happy and satisfied. Moreover, it can fix atmospheric nitrogen through symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, making it perfect for rice based cropping systems and intercropping with other crops. Despite having so many benefits, mungbean has been a neglected crop compared to other pulses with limited efforts aiming at its breeding and development. Higher productivity, breeding for biotic and abiotic stresses resistance and nutritional quality improvement are future challenges for mungbean breeders. Several researchers are working in the direction of collecting and maintaining mungbean genetic resources. Mutation breeding and genetic engineering has also been enhanced in mungbean varietal improvement. Genomic information is limited compared to other legume species. However, the recent successful sequencing of mungbean genome has opened new vistas into the crop’s R&D. It is a self-pollinated pulse with small genome size, which could be used as a model for studying other legumes. Mungbean breeders at present times aim to identify useful alleles from diverse germplasm and markers closely associated with desirable traits. The high-throughput marker genotyping system has now made it feasible to pinpoint the exact gene locations and mutations contributing target phenotypes. In this review we present the current status of conventional and molecular breeding of  the crop and summary of efforts in the utilization of genetic information and genomic resources for further mungbean improvement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Speargrass [Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeuschel] Growth in Relation to Season, Rainfall and Temperature Patterns of Southern Agro-ecologies of Nigeria

O. A. Aluko, J. O. Amosun, A. O. Adetayo, T. O. Dauda

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i330840

Speargrass posed a major constraint to crop producion in some agroecologies in Nigeria.  Hence, the study was conducted to investigate the influence of seasons, rainfall and temperature patterns on speargrass components growth with the view to improve its management. This study was conducted between 2014 and 2016 at Eruwa (7˚32’0˚N, 3˚ 25’0 ˚E, 187m altitude) in Derived savanna (DS) and Kishi (08˚.98’N, 003˚.94’E; 364m altitude) in the southern Guinea savanna (SGS)–northern fringe agroecologies of Nigeria. Twelve months of the year starting from July were randomly assigned to plots in an abandoned speargrass infested farmland, replicated three times and arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design. Monthly temperature, rainfall and speargrass samples (shoot and rhizome) were measured. Results showed that rainfall amount varied across the months in both locations. The highest rainfall was recorded in September (264.20 mm) and hottest month was May, 2016 (28.5oC) in Derived savanna between 2014 and 2016 (Table 1). Kishi had 186 mm rainfall in the wettest months and the hottest months had 28.0 oC within the specified period of the study (Table 2).  Total speargrass total dry weight (STDW) increased with rise in rainfall in both locations. Meanwhile, there were variations in the components (Shoot and rhizome) weight. However, there was decline in speargrass dry matter during the dry months (January to April) in the locations. This might have reflected the effects of moisture deficit.  Notwisthanding, Rhizome:shoot varied  at both locations. Derived savanna (Eruwa) had rhizome:shoot >1.00 in five months throughout the study (5/24), while southern Guinea savanna (Kishi) had rhizome:shoot >1.00 in eleven months (11/24). Speargrass control might be more challenging especially in SGS than DS in the months with higher Rhizome:shoot ratio > 1.00. Derived savanna had more months (19/24 months) with lower rhizome:shoot ratio (< 1.00) than SGS (13/24 months). This might have resulted from more rainy months and better distribution of rainfall in Derived savanna for speargrass shoot growth and the resultant decrease in rhizome:shoot (< 1.00). This is a clue for better translocation of herbicides for season-long speargrass control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Groundnut Genotypes for Sulphur Utilization Potential

R. Vinothini, R. K. Kaleeswari, D. Selvi, D. Uma, E. Kokila Devi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 10-16
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i330841

A microplot experiment was conducted on a medium black soil for screening of groundnut genotypes for improved S utilization. From this experiment four different S sources viz., Gypsum, SSP, FeSO4, and ZnSO4, were applied at four levels (S @ 0, 20, 30, and 40 kg ha-1). The results revealed that the addition of 40 kg S ha-1 as FeSO4 substantially increased the dry matter production and sulphur uptake irrespective of groundnut genotypes. Sulphur application in the form of SSP enhanced the root length and number of pods per plant. Groundnut genotypes CO7, VRI 8, and TMV 14 were categorized as efficient S utilizers, while BSR 2 and ALR 3 were recorded to be inefficient S utilizers.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Evaluation of Technical Efficiency and Garret Ranking Technique of Paddy and Wheat Farmers in Dabra Block Gwalior District M.P.

Rahul Kumar, A. M. Jaulkar, S. C. Srivastava, V. B. Singh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 17-27
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i330842

Objective: An evaluation of technical efficiency and garret ranking technique of paddy and wheat farmers has been conducted.

Methods: Multistage random sampling method was used to acquire sample farmer. A list of paddy and wheat growing farmers was prepared from Dabra block and twenty villages were selected randomly thereafter, a list of paddy and wheat farmers from each selected village was prepared then classified into five major categories on the basis of their land holding i.e. marginal(less than 1ha), small (1-2 ha), semi medium (2-4 ha), medium (4-10 ha), and large (greater than 10 ha). Then a sample of 30 farmers were selected in each category by simple random sampling technique under proportionate allocation from 20 villages treated as strata thus, 150 paddy and 150 wheat farmers were selected hence total sample size were 300.

Finding: The likelihood test ratio (LR test) for the inefficiency term on paddy farms was observed at 32.91 which was significant and suggesting that the inefficiency component is present in the model. In the case of wheat farms, the likelihood test ratio (LR test) was noted 1.02 which was insignificant and suggesting that the inefficiency component is not present in the model. The highest technical efficiency (88%) was found on the paddy farms as comparison to wheat farms (72%).This implied that on an average 12 per cent and 28 per cent of the technical potential was not achieved by paddy and wheat growers respectively.

Novelty: The studies establish that wheat farmers have more opportunity to amplify the yield by adopting modern crop management practices, training activities as compared to paddy farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growing Degree Days Requirement and Yield of Wheat Cultivars as Influenced by Irrigation Scheduling and Time of Sowing

Arjun Lal Prajapat, Rani Saxena, Mahesh Sharma, Rameshwr Lal Mandeewal, Babu Lal, Bhuwanesh Didal

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 28-35
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i330843

The crop production characteristics are directly related with the temperature and relative humidity of atmosphere during crop growing season. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to highlights thermal requirement (GDD) of wheat varieties for sustainable yield. The field experiment were conducted during Rabi season 2016 and 2017 at Research farm, Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute, Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University, Durgapura, Jobner, Rajasthan to find out the response of wheat cultivars to irrigation scheduling under different sowing dates. Thirty six treatment combinations were investigated. Treatments comprises four irrigation levels: I1 (0.6 ETc), I2 (0.8 ETc), I3 (1.0 ETc) and I4 (1.2 ETc), three cultivars: C1 (Raj-4120), C2 (Raj-4079) and C3 (Raj-4238) and three dates of sowing: D1 (15th Nov.), D2 (30th Nov.) and D3 (15th Dec.) in Split plot design. The pooled analysis of data revealed that irrigation scheduling treatment I4 (1.2 ETc) recorded significantly higher value of yield and Growing degree days (GDD), By cultivar Raj 4079 observed the higher value of yield and GDD. Further, results showed that the wheat crop sown on 15th November obtained the maximum yield and growing degree days value with phenological stages. The number of days required to attain different phenological stages decreased with late sowing condition. This indicated that irrigation scheduling at 1.2 ETc should adopted in cultivar Raj 4079 at the sowing on 15th November to achieve maximum yield under hot climate of  Rajasthan.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heterosis in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for Earliness and Heat Tolerant Traits over the Environments

A. Kumari, H. Sharma, A. Dashora

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 36-40
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i330844

The present study was carried out in 9 diverse parents, their 36 hybrids and 2 checks evaluated during Rabi 2020-21 at Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Mpuat, Udaipur in RBD with three replications in three different environments in wheat for earliness and heat tolerant traits viz., days to 50 per cent flowering, leaf canopy temperature, total protein content in grains, heat injury, proline content and total chlorophyll content on pooled basis. The pooled analysis for above characters revealed that mean squares due to environments, genotypes, parents, crosses as well as parents v/s. crosses were significant indicating presence of overall heterosis for the traits. Out of thirty six crosses 5 crosses viz., GJW 463 x RAJ 4120, DBW 173 x RAJ 4120, GJW 463 x DBW 173, GW 451 x LOK 1 and DBW 173 x RAJ 3777 were found superior with maximum significant heterobeltiosis and economic heterosis for heat tolerant traits and earliness over the environments. These genotypes could be used to maintain transgressive segregants in future breeding programme.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Single and Combined Toxicity of Chlorantraniliprole with Bacillus thuringiensis against Maize Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under Laboratory Conditions

V. Gowtham, M. Muthuswami, N. Sathiah, S. Geetha, S. Varanavasiappan, D. Uma

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 41-49
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i330845

Use of synthetic insecticides for the management of fall armyworm (FAW) Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) for a longer period will led to development of insecticide resistance. Identification of an eco-friendly synergistic agent to enhance the toxicity potential and reduced pesticide use as well become mandatory in due process. Hence the present study was formulated to find the single and combined toxicity of chlorantraniliprole and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) against the 2nd and 3rd larval instars of S. frugiperda. Single toxicity of chlorantraniliprole against 2nd and 3rd larval instars were 0.87 and 1.52 ppm (LC25); 4.08 and 6.50 ppm (LC50), respectively. With respect to Bt, single toxicity against 2nd and 3rd larval instars were 474.39 and 693.48 ppm (LC25); 1008.62 and 1228.62 ppm (LC50), respectively. Combination effect of chlorantraniliprole with Bt revealed that 2nd instar of FAW showed supplemental synergism at LC50 of chlorantraniliprole + LC25 of Bt. In the case of LC50 of chlorantraniliprole + LC50 of Bt, LC25 of chlorantraniliprole + LC50 of Bt and LC25 of chlorantraniliprole + LC50 of Bt combinations, they showed sub additive synergism. In 3rd instar larvae, the combined toxicity results were similar for all the combinations of chlorantraniliprole + Bt except LC25 of chlorantraniliprole + LC50 of Bt where it showed an antagonistic synergism. Activity of Carboxyl Esterase (CarE), Mixed Function Oxidase (MFO) and Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST) were found to be lesser in chlorantraniliprole LC50 + Bt LC25 combinations than single toxicity treatments. Therefore, combined use of chlorantraniliprole with Bt at LC50 of chlorantraniliprole + LC25 of Bt had supplemental synergism on fall armyworm under laboratory condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isotherms of Adsorption of Heavy Metals in Soils and Sediments of the La Villa River Basin-Panamá

José Ezequiel Villarreal Núñez, Adolfo Santo Pineda, Neldis Ballesteros, Jhon Alexander Villalaz Pérez, Iván Alexis Ramos Zachrisson

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 60-74
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i330847

The study was carried out within the La Villa river basin (Herrera and Los Santos provinces). In these lands, great agricultural activity is developed, highlighting the production of corn, tomatoes, melons, watermelon, beans, peppers, sugarcane, meat and milk livestock. They are subjected to intensive use of agrochemicals and influenced by discharges of by-products from some industrial and agro-industrial companies located within the basin. The objective of the study was to determine by means of Langmuir isotherms the maximum adsorption of Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in soils and sediments of areas with intensive agricultural activity within the La Villa river basin. Five soil and sediment samples were taken from producer´s farms in the rainy season (June-November 2016) and five samples in the dry season (January-April 2017). The total concentration of the heavy metal was determined. The isotherms of the trace metals in soils and sediments were determined in the samples taken at both times of the year by applying different concentrations of the metal in a CaCl2 0.01 M solution. High levels of Cu were found in soils and Cu, Mn, Cr and As in sediments. The Mn isotherm showed low values ​​and low adsorption force, Cu and Zn showed high adsorption values, but with low retention force. For Pb, high adsorption values ​​were observed, but very low retention force in the dry season, contrary to Cd, which obtained low adsorption values, but with a higher force. This behavior is closely related to the texture of the soils. The Cu, Zn and Mn showed high significant correlations with the clay content in the soil, contrary to the pH and the organic matter did not obtain a good correlation with the adsorption of the metals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Technological Quality of Dual-purpose Wheat Stored

Giselle Regina Rodolfo, Clovis Arruda de Souza

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 75-82
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i330848

Defoliation may interfere in the sink-source relationship and influence the technological quality of wheat flour. This study aimed to confirm the effects of plant cutting heights and number of cuttings on the technological wheat flour quality of BRS Umbu and BRS Tarumã cultivars after six months of storage. A completely randomized design was used and treatments consisted of a combination of cutting heights (20 and 30 cm) and number of cuttings (no cutting, 1, 2 and 3 cuttings), resulting in the following treatments: 20/1, 20/2, 20/3 30/1, 30/2, 30/3 and controls with no cuttings. Grain moisture, crude protein, hectoliter weight, gluten strength, falling number and wet gluten were determined. It was observed the behavior for both cultivars and number of cuts was similar, and it was found that the defoliation height of 30 cm resulted in greater decreases in PH and W values of 2.5 and 25.5% respectively. The results indicate that defoliation does not lead to the evolution of the stored wheat evaluated technological properties and with storage, properties such as W and WG of both cultivars showed a reduction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agronomic Yield Performance of Rape and Assessment of Discrimination of Soil Fertilizer Amendments on Genotypic Responses

Marshal Mayuniyuni, Langa Tembo

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 83-91
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i330849

Aim: The objectives of the study were to (i) assess agronomic performance of rape (Brassica napus L.) genotypes under different soil amendments and seasons and (ii) identify the most discriminating soil fertilizer amendment on genotypic responses of rape.

Study Design: The experiment was laid as a split plot design with 3 replications in each season.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was undertaken in Monze district, southern province, Zambia in winter and summer periods of 2020/2021 cropping season.

Methodology: The soil fertilizer amendment combinations were the main plots and rape varieties (English Giant [ENG], Hobson [HOB] and Rampart [RAM]) were laid as subplots. Giving a total of 54 experimental units per season. The amendments constituted combinations of raw dung type and artificial fertilizer. The quantitative data, on biomass, breadth, height and leaf count were measured at six weeks after transplanting.

Results: Across seasons, soil amendment and genotypic main effects exhibited significantly responses with regards to biomass and leaf count (P = 0.05). Furthermore, the agronomic genotypic performance showed that RAM was the worst performer. The genotypic response to measured agronomic parameters was better in Raw Cow-Dung plus Cow- Dung Ash (RCD + CDA) soil fertilizer amendment than others. Interestingly RCD + CDA was the common discriminating amendment in summer and winter trials.

Conclusion: Rape genotypes performed relatively better in summer than in winter season. The genotype English giant rape and Hobson were better performers across seasons and soil fertilizer amendments. The combination of RCD + CDA was the common discriminating amendment in both summer and winter trials.