Open Access Minireview Article

Scenario of Black Pepper Production in North-East India

Rajshree Verma, Apurba Das, Neha Chakrawarti, Prety R. Narzary, Pranjal Kumar Kaman, Sanjib Sharma, Soumitro Goswami, Manuranjan Gogoi, Roshmi Borah

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 170-175
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031141

India, the land of spices is one of the major exporters and consumers of black pepper. India lost its top position 20 years ago in pepper production despite the land of origin. Black pepper is cultivated commercially in southern states and on a small scale in north eastern India at present. The farmers started cultivation of black pepper in north eastern states way back. Initially the production from North east India contributed only 1% of country’s total production but currently it is one of the major pepper producers contributing 10% of total production. The North eastern region provides tremendous scope for the cultivation because of diverse agro-climate, well-distributed rainfall, and fertile virgin land. Even though north east India is bestowed with ample of natural resources, growers are still not able to harness them efficiently. This paper discusses the current scenario, constraints, and future thrust of pepper production in the north eastern region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of NPK, Zinc and Boron Fertilization on Physico-chemical Properties of Soil under summer Green Gram (Vigna radiate L.) Cultivation in an Inceptisol of Prayagraj, (Uttar Pradesh)

Jadhav Ravindra, Narendra Swaroop, Tarence Thomas

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031121

The study pertaining to the present topic under field investigation is entitled "Response of N, P, K, Zinc and Boron fertilization on Soil Health, Growth and Yield Attributes of Summer Green gram (Vigna radiata L.) in an Inceptisol of Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh" for two consecutive years, beginning from the summer seasons of the years 2021 and 2022 at Research Farm, Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry. Before conducting research operations, an excavated soil sample from the experimental site revealed that the land topography ranged from nearly level to 1-3% slope, the soil is of sandy loam texture with near neutral in reaction (7.62), the electrical conductivity was non-saline (0.23 dS m-1) in nature, the low organic carbon content (0.29%), the low to medium available N (146.62 kg ha-1), available P (13.78 kg ha-1) and available K (207.15kg ha-1). The best results were seen with treatment (T11), which was made up of RDF (20:40:20 NPK kg ha-1) + Zinc@6 kg ha-1+ Boron@3 kg ha-1. This treatment used NPK and different micronutrient (Zinc and Boron) levels at the same time. regard to physical soil parameters, the cumulative mean value for bulk density (1.27 Mg m-3), percent pore space (47.74%), particle density (2.67 Mg m-3) and percent maximum water holding capacity (43.68%) were increased and chemical soil parameters with a cumulative mean of slightly saline soil pH (7.81), average electrical conductivity (0.37 dS m-1), medium available N (275.93 kg ha-1), medium available P in T2 (21.07 kg ha-1) due to the antagonistic effect of zinc on Phosphorous, medium available K (230.38 kg ha-1), high available Zn (0.623 mg kg-1), and high available B (0.616 mg kg-1) were labeled in comparison to other NPK and micronutrients levels treatments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of NPK, Zinc and Boron Fertilization on Growth, Yield Attributes and Nutrient Uptake by SUMMER GREEN GRAM (Vigna radiate L.) in an Inceptisol of Prayagraj, (Uttar Pradesh)

Jadhav Ravindra, Narendra Swaroop, Tarence Thomas

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 9-16
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031123

The study pertaining to the present topic under field investigation entitled “Response of N, P, K, Zinc and Boron fertilization on Soil Health, Growth and Yield attributes of Summer Green gram (Vigna radiata L.) in an Inceptisol of Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh)” for two consecutive years, beginning from summer seasons of the years 2021 and 2022 at Research Farm, Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry. The excavated soil sample from the experimental site before conducting research operation, mentioned that, the land topography range was nearly level with a 1-3% slope; the soil is of sandy loam texture with neutral to alkaline in reaction. Among eleven treatments, during field experimentation, the conjunctive use of Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium (NPK) and different micronutrients (Zinc and Boron) levels, together came with the best results significantly. However, the growth factors including pre-harvest parameters i.e. height of plant (48 cm), number of branches plant-1 (14) and number of pods plant-1 (28.63) opined significantly higher in treatment (T11) registering RDF (recommended dose of fertilizer) (20:40:20 NPK kg ha-1)+ Zinc@6 kg ha-1+ Boron @3 kg ha-1, which in turn influenced in achieving highest mean of the number of grains pod-1 (12.11), protein content (25.12 %) and weight of 100 grains (6.26 gm), which ultimately gave the highest cumulative mean of grain yield (1594.37 kg ha-1), straw yield (2974.88 kg ha-1), biological yield (4569.24 kg ha-1), harvest index (37.04 %), NPK, Zinc and Boron uptake in green gram grain i.e. N 36.28 and 38.18, P 5.46 and 5.73, K 11.84 and 12.47 kg ha-1 while Zn 91.97 and 92.19, B 45.75 and 45.94 g ha-1, respectively during two years and straw which was N 30.77 and 31.44, P 3.92 and 4.36, K 23.43 and 23.99 kg ha-1 while Zn 67.27 and 67.48 and B 63.08 and 63.15 g ha-1, respectively, net returns of 85,511.55 and 86,837.50 (Rs ha-1), wider B:C ratio (1:2.73 and 1:2.77) as compared to rest of treatments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Submergence Tolerant Shallow Lowland Rice Variety Swarna sub-1 under Frontline Demonstrations in East and South Eastern Coastal Plain Zone of Odisha, India

Amit Phonglosa, Hemanta Kumar Sahoo, Prasannajit Mishra, Shiba Prasad Sangramsingh, Bishnupriya Patra

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 17-23
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031125

Frontline demonstrations on rice crop in 15.4 ha area using submergence tolerant variety Swarna sub-1 were carried out in participatory mode in farmers’ field during Kharif season of 2016, 2017 and 2018 at Ranapur village of Khordha district under East and South Eastern Coastal Plain Zone of Odisha by University Extension Block programme (UEBP) of Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Odisha, India. Major constraints of traditional rice cultivation are low productivity in shallow lowland areas due to lack of knowledge and partial adoption of recommended package of practices by rice growing farmers. Therefore, present demonstration programmes have been undertaken to popularize/introduce stress tolerant rice var. Swarna sub-1 in flood prone and shallow lowland areas of Khordha district of Odisha, India. The present study revealed that there was 20.4% increase in average yield of demonstrated field over the farmers practice field of rice crop. An average yield of 45.68 q ha-1 was recorded in demonstration as compared to 37.84 q ha-1 in farmers practice during consecutive three years demonstrations. It might be due to considerable variation in the extent of adoption of improved/recommended technology which was resulted lower yield in farmers practice. Average technology gap, extension gap and technology index was found 12.32 q ha-1, 7.84 q ha-1 and 28.39%, respectively. The demonstrations with improved practice gave higher net return of Indian Rupee (INR) 18180, 26538 and 35605 ha-1 as compared to farmers practices with INR 12987, 16361 and 17294, respectively during Kharif seasons of 2016, 2017 and 2018. The benefit cost ratio (B:C ratio) of rice cultivation under improved practices were found to be 1.42, 1.60 and 1.80 as compared to 1.31, 1.38 and 1.39 under farmers practices. Moreover, the demonstration practice showed maximum 105.88% increase in net returns over farmers practice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Appraisal of Soil Physical Properties and Preparation of Soil Variability Maps of Agricultural Research Station, Ummedganj-Kota

Kamlesh Bhil, M. K. Sharma, Rajendra Kumar Yadav, B. S. Meena, Neha Meena, Narendra Danga, Rajesh Meena

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 41-51
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031127

Aim: The soils of various fields of Agricultural Research Station, Ummedganj-Kota were collected and analyzed for the physical properties viz. soil colour, texture, bulk density, particle density, porosity and water holding capacity. The soil maps were prepared with the help of GIS software using geo-statistical analysis

Study Design:  Soil sampling, soil analysis and soil mapping.

Place and Duration of Study: Agricultural Research Station, Ummedganj-Kota in 2019 and 2020

Methodology: Total 300 Geo-referenced surface (0-15 cm) soil samples collected. The bulk density of the soils ranged from 1.25 to 1.57 Mg m-3 (mean value 1.43 Mg m-3), particle density ranged from 2.57 to 2.71 Mg m-3 (mean value 2.68 Mg m-3) and the porosity of the soils ranged from 41.42 to 51.92% (mean value of 46.42%). Water holding capacity of the soils ranged from 35.11-52.46% (mean value of 44.31%). Soil colour of the different field soils were brown, dark brown, dark gray, very dark gray, and black.

Results: According to soil analysis data and soil variability maps field no. 14 was best in physical properties like bulk density (1.37 Mg m-3), particle density ( 2.62Mg m-3)  and water holding capacity (49.02%) as compared to other fields of ARS, Ummedganj, Kota.

Conclusion: Field  no. 14 was best in physical properties like BD, PD, Porosity and WHC as compared to other fields because organic farming practices leads to increase soil organic matter which have positive relation with physical property of the soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Discriminating of Some Early Maturing Wheat Genotypes under Late Sowing in North Delta of Egypt

Mohamed Nabil Awad El-Hawary, Mokhtar Moragea Mokhtar Gab Alla, Eman Mahmoud Ahmad Hussein, Alaa Mohamed El-Mahdy Ahmed Shahein

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 52-70
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031128

Present study work has been undertaken to evaluate the productivity and quality of early maturity wheat genotypes under optimum and late sowing conditions. For this purpose, two field experiments were conducted on the experimental farm of Sakha Agricultural Research Station, Field Crop Res. Inst., ARC, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt, during the two winter growing seasons of 2019/20 and 2020/21. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications to study the influence of two sowing dates on earliness, yield, and its components and quality characters of 22 early maturing beard wheat genotypes and two check cultivars (Misr 3 and Sakha 95) were studied. Each sowing date was sown in a separate experiment; the first experiment was planted on 23rd Nov. (optimum sowing date), while, the second one was on 23rd Dec. (late sowing date) in both seasons. Results indicated that optimum sowing date had significantly higher mean values for all studied characters except grain protein, wet gluten, dry gluten, and grain ash. Sakha 95 was the highest grain yield under the two sowing dates without significant differences from Line-2, Misr 3, and Line-5 under the optimum sowing date, and Line-4, Line-5, Line-2, Misr 3, Line-18, and Line-17 under late sowing date. Discriminant analysis results indicated that growing degree days played the most dominant discriminatory role in explaining the variation of the 24 wheat genotypes. Also, it could be effective in the identification of the wheat genotypes of desirable traits for late sowing date conditions. Discriminant scores used as selection index based on earliness, yield, and its components and quality characters were suggested that the superior genotypes under overall both sowing dates were Line-2, Misr 3, and Sakha 95 in addition to Line-17 and Line-5 under late sowing date. These superior genotypes could be used under late sowing date conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Zinc Fortification on Growth and Yield of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana L.)

P. Rathnakar, N. Mohan, Boyina Aparna, Pasala Ramya

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 71-75
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031129

A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2021 at CRF (Crop Research Farm), Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj, (U.P). The soil of the experimental field is sandy loam in texture with a neutral soil pH. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design with nine treatments and three replications. The treatments consisted of three levels of Zinc viz., 10 kg/ha, 15 kg/ha, 25 kg/ha and three levels of Zinc sulphate at 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5%, whose effect was observed in finger millet. The results revealed that the treatment with application of 15 kg/ha zinc + 0.5% Znso4 recorded higher plant height (81.22 cm), number of tillers/plant (7.85/plant), plant dry weight (26.32g/plant), and the yield attributes viz., seed yield (2.79 t/ha), straw yield (4.72 t/ha) and harvest index (37.19%) were also recorded highest in the treatment with application of 15 kg/ha zinc and 0.5% Znso4.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Organic Fertilizers on the Soil Properties and Bacterial Communities of Marigold Rhizosphere Soil

K. Taropi, S. Mahanta, M. C. Talukdar, P. Saikia, N. Borah

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 76-86
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031130

The investigation was undertaken to study the impact of different organic inputs on the soil properties of African marigold rhizosphere soil. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for RBD with three replications was carried out using OPSTAT. The present investigation was conducted in experimental farm, Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam, between 2020-2021. The African marigold variety ‘Seracole’ was chosen for the experiment consisting of 7 treatment combinations with one treatment comprising of the recommended dose of fertilizers and the other six treatment comprising of various organic manures, rock phosphate with a consortium of Azotobacter, Azospirillum and PSB. It was observed that T7 {Enriched compost (5 t/ha)} exhibited the highest values for soil pH, soil moisture content, organic Carbon, available Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Microbial Biomass Carbon and various soil enzymes followed by T3 {Vermicompost (5t/ha) + Rock phosphate (100 kg/ha) + Microbial consortium}. Considering the positive effect on growth, yield, quality and soil health, T3 and T7 both can be considered best for adopting at the field level to reap good economic yield accompanied by better quality and sustainable soil health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Soil Physical Properties from Different Blocks of Jaipur District, Rajasthan, India

Surykant Sharma, Amreen Hasan, Tarance Thomas, Tarun Kumar, Vinayak Sharma, Amrita Sharma, Arun Alfred David

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 87-95
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031131

The year 2021-2022, An analysis experiment was done for identification physical properties from the Rajasthan state at the Jaipur district area. For further study, twenty-seven soil samples were taken from farmer's fields in different three blocks of Jaipur district at depths 0-15 cm, 15-30 cm and 30-45 cm. The soil texture in the examined region was sandy loam. The difference of soil color also noticed in both the Air-dry condition and Moist condition and the color was light yellowish brown (10YR6/4) to brownish yellow (10YR5/8) and bulk density was from 1.24-1.34 Mg m-3, The range of particle density was from 2.27-2.34 Mg m-3 and the pore space 37.77 to 43.65 %. The water retaining capacity % (WRC %) of soil ranged between 43.56 to 57.28 %. The specific gravity of soil ranged between 2.33 to 2.46. The manure and organic fertilizers are suitable for good soil health and maximum crop production at the farmer’s field.

Open Access Original Research Article

Grain Yield and Economic Benefit of Soybean as Affected by Integration of Rhizobium Inoculation and Phosphorus Application in Chuka Sub-County, Kenya

Mulambula Sioma, K. Gathungu Geofrey, O. Ndukhu Haggai

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 96-107
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031132

Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merrill) yields are far below the potential yield on most smallholder farms in Kenya. This necessitates suitable interventions to bridge this yield gap and result to profitable soybean production. An experiment was conducted in Chuka University demonstration farm, Chuka Sub County to determine the effect of integration of rhizobium inoculation (R) and phosphorus (P) on yields and net economic returns in soybean cultivation. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design in a split-split plot arrangement with each treatment replicated three times. The experiment which was conducted between 2018 and 2019 was repeated once and the treatments included; three P rates (0, 20 and 30 kg/ha), three rhizobium rates (0, 100 and 200 g/ha) and two soybean genotypes (SB19 and SB24). Triple superphosphate (0:46:0) was used as the source of the phosphorus. The soybean genotypes, rhizobium and phosphorus rates were assigned to the main plot, sub-plot and the sub-sub plots respectively. Data collected included soybean yields (kg/ha) and economic analysis was calculated. The data collected was subjected to analysis of variance using Statistical Analysis System® 9.4 and significantly different means separated using Tukeys test at (p0.05). The results showed statistically significant difference in soybean yields and net economic benefit within SB19 and SB24 genotypes in both trials at (p0.05). Integration of R and P at the rate of 200 g and 30 kg/ha increased soybean yield by 101% and 98%, and 158% and 138% for SB19 and SB24 in trial I and II respectively. This earned a net economic benefit of ksh. 239,496 and 192,730, and ksh. 297,930 and 239,330 for SB19 and SB24 in both trials I and II, respectively. Both genotypes performed well in yield and net economic benefit and application of R and P at the rate of 200 g/ha and 30 kg/ha promoted yield and net economic benefit of soybean.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Pre-sowing Seed Treatments on Physiological Potential of Seed Germination in Okra

Fasil Fayaz, Farooq A. Khan, Sajad A. Bhat, Sumati Narayan, Zakir H. Khan, Shakil A. Mir, . Moinddin, Mohammad Amir

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 108-116
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031133

Aims: The present investigation was carried out at SKUAST-Kashmir during the year 2020 to improve the seed vigour and germination potential of okra through pre-sowing seed treatments.

Study Design: The experiment was laid in completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications

Place and Duration of Study: The present investigation was carried out at the division of Basic Sciences and Humanities, SKUAST-Kashmir during the year 2020

Methodology: There were nine pre-sowing seed treatments comprised of simple seed soaking and seed priming with water (T1 and T5), -1.0MPa solution of PEG (T2 and T6), 100ppm solution of GA3 (T3 and T7) and 1.5% solution of KH2PO4 (T4 and T8), respectively along with untreated control (T0). Fifty seeds of each treatment were cultured in 14.0cm Petri dishes lined with 10 layers of moist filter paper. Observations on various germination parameters were recorded at (25±2°C).

Results: Findings of the study revealed that seed soaking in water (T1) resulted in maximum FGP (93.3%) and GI (16.29) compared to other treatments. Discrete middling of different soaking (AvS) and priming (AvP) treatments indicated the novelty of seed priming over simple soaking. However, unlike FGP and GI, all other parameters viz., CVG, MGT, MGR, T50 and Z-index were found superior when seeds were primed in water (T5) with their recorded values of 87.34%day-1, 1.15day-1, 0.614 day-1, 1.18 day, 0.790, respectively. Values of CVG, MGR and Z index with respect to separate means of simple seed soaking, AvS (69.5%day-1, 0. 0.566day-1 and 0.53) and priming, AvP (75.6%day-1, 0.573day-1 and 0.63) further confirmed the dominancy of seed priming technique over simple seed soaking. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed strong relationship between different quantities of seed germination attributes.

Conclusion: Seed priming resulted in better germination attributes in okra compared to tradirional seed soaking and as such priming treatments should be practiced instead of traditional seed soaking in okra.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Cattle Urine Application on Soil Properties of Lateritic Soils under Spinach Cultivation

V. S. Sakhare, A. B. Jadhav, G. D. Patil, D. D. Patange

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 117-124
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031134

The experiment was undertaken to study effect of soil application of cattle urine on growth and yield of spinach in Lateritic soil at wire house of Division of Soil Science and Agriculture Chemistry RCSM College of Agriculture Kolhapur during rabi- 2020. There are total seven nitrogen substitution treatments through urea and cattle urine. The treatment consist of absolute control, recommended dose of fertilizers (40:40:40 kg ha-1N, P2O5 and K2O), general recommended dose of fertilizers (40:40:40 kg ha-1 N, P2O5 and K2O + FYM @ 10 t ha-1), 75% RDN-urea + 25% N- cattle urine, 50% RDN-urea + 50% N-cattle urine, 25% RDN-urea + 75% N- cattle urine, 100% RDN-cattle urine replicated thrice in complexly randomized design.

It could be observed from the data that pH and EC of lateritic soil was increased with the application of cattle urine for nitrogen substation. Significantly higher pH (7.67) and EC (1.01dsm-1) of lateritic soil was reported with the application of 100% RDN through cattle urine at first of spinach (46 DAS). Decreasing trend in soil EC was observed at second ut of spinach in all the treatments under study while non-significant results were obtained for soil reaction (pH) at second cut. Significantly higher (1.40%) and (1.07%) organic carbon in lateritic soil was reported with the application of 100% RDN through cattle urine at first and second cut of spinach. Calcium carbonate content in lateritic soil at both the cuts of spinach were recorded non- significant result due to the application of nitrogen through fertilizer and cattle urine. Significantly higher (253.93 kg ha-1) soil available nitrogen (253.93 and 184.97 kg ha-1), phosphorus (30.72 and 29.10 kg ha-1) and potassium (313.43 and 303.00 kg ha-1) were recorded at first and second cut of spinach with the application of 100% RDN through cattle urine respectively. Significantly higher DTPA Fe (26.55 and 24.30 mg kg-1), Mn (23.39 and 21.70 mg kg-1), Zn (7.09 and 3.84 mg kg-1) and Cu (12.01 and 9.12 mg kg-1) were recorded with the application of 100 % RDN thorough cattle urine. Further it can be seen from the data that DTPA availability of metallic micronutrients were higher in those treatments received cattle urine for either substitution of nitrogen @ 25,50, 75 or 100 percent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Soil Nutrient Index and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Soil from Different Blocks of Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh, India

K. Manivikas, Amreen Hasan, Arun Alfred David, Tarence Thomas, I. Srinath Reddy

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 125-133
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031135

The evaluation of Physico-chemical properties of soil of different blocks of Kurnool district was carried out in 2021-2022. The main objectives of this study is to evaluate the Physico-chemical properties of soil and to analyze the soil nutrient index of soil. For evaluation 9 sampling sites were selected with different depths of 0-15cm, 15-30cm and 30-45cm. The research findings revealed that the Bulk density ranges from 1.33 to 1.52 (Mg m-3). The Particle density ranges from 2.36 to 2.66 (Mg m-3). The Pore space ranges from 46.66 to 59.09 (%). The Water Holding Capacity ranges from 49.52 to 60.22 (%). The Soil pH ranges from 7.66 to 8.44. The Electrical Conductivity ranges from 0.15 to 0.57 (dS m- 1). The Soil Organic Carbon ranges from 0.35 to 0.66 (%). The Available Nitrogen ranges from 94.30 to 218.58 (kg ha-1). The Available Phosphorous ranges from 12.7 to 52.6 (kg ha-1). The Available Potassium ranges from 135.42 to 402.4 (kg ha-1). The Exchangeable Calcium ranges from 13.66 to 34.62 (cmol (p+) kg-1). The Exchangeable Magnesium ranges from 4.21 to 8.35 (cmol (p+) kg-1). The Available Zinc ranges from 0.16 to 0.57 (ppm). The Available Copper ranges from 0.18 to 0.77 (ppm). The Available Iron ranges from 3.22 to 6.89 (ppm). Based on the outcomes soil is good for cultivation of different crops and this data will aid farmers in application of nutrients to soil and also in maintaining good soil health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenotypic Diversity of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) Genotypes for Grain Yield Characters

D. Madhusri, G. Roopa Lavanya, M. Elangovan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 139-148
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031137

Analysis of variance showed high significant differences among 40 finger millet genotypes for all the characters under study. High GCV and PCV was recorded for number of tillers per plant, biological yield and peduncle length respectively suggesting that there was predominance of additive gene action. Number of tillers per plant, biological yield, peduncle length, harvest index, grain yield per plant, finger length, ear head length, Number of fingers, days to 50 % flowering exhibited  high  estimates  of heritability  with   high   genetic   advance, indicating   that   these  characters are predominantly  governed  by  additive  gene  action  and  selection  on the  basis  of  these characters would be more effective. Based on the relative magnitude of D2 value, the genotypes were grouped into 4 clusters. The maximum inter cluster distance was observed between clusters II and IV (25.95) followed by cluster II and III (12.16) and crosses involving genotypes from these clusters can be selected to yield superior segregants and future genetic improvement. Peduncle length, biological yield, days to 50% flowering and grain yield per plant appeared to be the most important trait contributing 79.11% towards genetic divergence.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Foliar Application of Nano-Urea Under Different Nitrogen Levels on Growth and Nutrient Content of Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.)

Sachin Kumar Sharma, P. K. Sharma, Rameshwr Lal Mandeewal, Vishakha Sharma, Rani Chaudhary, Rajnish Pandey, Shubham Gupta

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 149-155
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031138

A field experiment entitled “Effect of Foliar Application of Nano-Urea under Different Nitrogen Levels on Productivity and Quality of Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.)” was conducted at Research Farm, Vivekananda Global University, Jaipur (India) during Kharif season of 2021. The experiment was laid out with 9 treatment combinations comprising in a factorial randomized block design with three replications. Results showed that highest plant height, dry matter accumulation, chlorophyll content, nitrogen content, phosphorus content and potassium content in grain and straw of pearl millet was obtained with the application of 100% RDN which was significantly superior to 50% RDN. Results further showed that foliar spray of Nano-Urea (4 ml/l water) at 30 and 45 DAS significantly increased the plant height, dry matter accumulation, chlorophyll content, nitrogen content, phosphorus content and potassium content in grain and straw of pearl millet over control and foliar spray of Nano-Urea (4 ml/l water) at 30 DAS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Tillage Methods under Rainfed Cultivation of Cotton-Pulses Crop Rotation

N. Anandaraj, M. Manikandan, V. Sanjivkumar, A. Solaimalai

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 156-163
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031139

Aims: To evaluate the effect of tillage methods on soil moisture storage, grain yield, economics and rain water use efficiency in semi-arid region

Study Design: Four tillage methods viz. conventional tillage, Rotovator ploughing + chisel ploughing, chisel ploughing + tiller ploughing, conservation tillage (Minimum tillage with retention of crop residue) at different time of ploughing.

Place and Duration of Study: Kovilpatti, a representative location of semi-arid regions of Southern Tamil Nadu. This study was conducted from 2015 to 2021 with the alternate years of crop rotation of cotton and greengram.

Methodology: The field experiments were in cotton and greengram in black soil under rain fed situations. Soil samples were collected at different depths to assess the soil moisture storage. Yield was recorded and cost of cultivation was worked out. Rainwater used for obtaining higher yield was calculated. .

Results: Soil moisture storage in subsurface soil layers was higher in conservation methods of tillage followed by rotatvator and chisel ploughing method. For both crops, Rotovator plough followed by chisel plough recorded the higher rain water use efficiency, yield and net return.

Conclusion: This study clearly indicated that Rotovator ploughing once followed by chisel ploughing once could be adopted as a promising strategy to retain soil water availability and boost crop productivity in semiarid regions of Tamil Nadu.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Inorganic Fertilizers, Crop Residues, Organic Manure and Bio-fertilizer on Soil Health and Yield attributes of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)

Rinku Kumari, Arun Alfred David, Tarence Thomas, I. Srinath Reddy

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 164-169
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031140

During Kharif season 2021-22 at the central research farm of the Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry in Naini Agriculture Institute research was carried out on response of cowpea by applying crop residues, organic manure, inorganic and Bio-fertilizers for effective crop growth. The experiment trial was conducted based on Randomize Block design with 9 treatments and 3 replications. The results revealed that the soil bulk density ranged from 1.15 to 1.45 Mg m-3, particles density ranged from 2.04 to 2.44 Mg m-3, and pore space ranged from 40.69% to 45.62%. The pH ranged from 6.63 to 7.27, E.C from 0.146 to 0.253 dS m-1, Soil Organic carbon ranged from 0.344 to 0.627%, Available Nitrogen ranged from 142.38 to 248.39 kg ha-1, Phosphorus ranged from 15.28 to 35.37 kg ha-1, Potassium 179.63 to 240.67 kg ha-1 respectively. T3 was shown the best yield compared to respective treatments which is 19.45 q ha-1 Thus, it indicates that the process of integrated nutrient management may be a better option for the physical and chemical condition of the soil to achieve better growth and yield attributes for Cowpea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Nutrient Content of Guava Cv. ‘Pant Prabhat’ Affected by Different Canopy Heights and Planting Densities

Reena Prusty, Rajesh Kumar, Satish Chand, Pooja Devi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 188-193
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031142

The study was conducted to determine the changes in nutrient composition of both affected by canopy heights, planting densities, and their interactions in comparison with both rainy and winter seasons. The experiment was composed of 4 different canopy heights [1.25m (H1), 1.5m (H2), 1.75m (H3), and unpruned (H4)] and 3 planting densities [5555 (D1), 3333 (D2), and (D3) 4444 plants ha-1] with total 12 treatment combinations laid out in factorial RBD was conducted. Fruits from the winter season were high in the nutrient content than in the rainy season. Canopy height H1 (1.75 m) recorded the maximum N, P, K, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn (1.43%, 0.40%, 1.22%, 2.31 ppm, 2.28 ppm, 2.50 ppm and 1.31 ppm) in the winter season while, in the rainy season, maximum (0.88%, 0.35%, 0.98%, 2.07 ppm, 1.92 ppm, 2.14 ppm, 1.05 ppm) canopy height H3 (1.75m). Planting density D2 (3333 plant ha-1) recorded the maximum nutrient content for both seasons. It is therefore concluded canopy height H1 (1.25m) with planting density D2 (3333 plant ha-1) is best for producing fruits with high nutrient content for the winter crops.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphology and Influence of Abiotic Factors on Magnaporthe grisea

Bintu Dagar, Rakesh Kumar, Vinod Kumar Malik, Preety Verma, Pankaj Yadav, Lokesh Yadav, Tarun Verma

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 176-187
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031143

The present study entitled “Studies on Magnaporthe grisea incitant of blast disease of pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.]” was conducted during the kharif 2019 at research farm, Department of Plant Pathology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar. Pearl millet blast disease is a devastating fungal disease causing considerable yield losses. Blast of pearl millet incited by Magnaporthe grisea is the most widespread and destructive disease of pearl millet in India and other pearl millet growing area of the world. This disease is a major factor limiting full exploitation of high yield potential hybrids in India. In the present investigation, culture medium plays an important role in growth and sporulation of fungus. Among 5 media tested, rice meal agar was found most effective for all the 3 isolates of pearl millet blast were tested. Combined effect of temperature and relative humidity also play an important role in growth and spore germination of fungus. Among five combination of temperature and relative humidity, 30℃ temperature with 100 % relative humidity was found most effective for spore germination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Nutrient Management Sources on the Vegetative Growth, Flowering and Sex Expression of the Bottle Gourd [Lagenaria siceraria L.] c. v. BBOG-3-1

Menka Pathak, Sunil Kumar Dash, Gouri Shankar Sahu, Pradyumna Tripathy, Antaryami Mishra, Rabindra kumar Nayak

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 194-201
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031144

A field research was carried out in the Department of Vegetable Science, Odisha University of Agricultural and Technology (OUAT), India, during the 2018 kharif season to investigate the impact of various   sources of nutrient management on the vegetative growth and flowering of Kharif Season Bottle Gourd. The research project was set up in a randomized block design with replicated three times of twelve treatment. According to the results, the maximum vine length (529.33cm) was noted in treatment T10 (100% RDF + FYM @ 7.5 t ha-1+ Biofertilizer), maximum number of Primary branches (8.97), internodal length (15.83),minimum no. of node bearing 1st male flower (4.67), minimum no. of node bearing 1st female flower (7.67) was recorded in treatment T12 (50% RDF + FYM @7.5 t ha-1+ Vermicompost @ 2.5 t ha-1+ Biofertilizer) whereas minimum number of days until the 1st male flower (46.33 days ),minimum days to the first female blossom (49.00days),  minimum days to 1st Fruit set (50.67days) were found significant as vegetative, flowering parameters and Sex ratio (3.10)  while the lowest response for these parameters was obtained with T1 (control).

Open Access Original Research Article

Balanced Fertilization in Rice-maize Cropping System to Enhance Productivity, Economics and Soil Fertility Status in North Coastal Zone, Andhra Pradesh

M. M. V. Srinivasa Rao, D. Nagarjuna, K. Tejeswar Rao, M. Srinivas, T. S. S. K. Patro, N. Ravisankar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 202-208
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031145

A study was conducted in 24 farmers fields during both kharif, rabi seasons in two successive years i.e., 2017-18 and 2018-19 in Vizianagaram district, Andhra Pradesh to demonstrate the importance of optimal fertilizers schedule in rice-maize cropping system. The seven treatments consist of control, N, NP, NK, NPK, NPK+ ZnSO4 and farmer practice. The results revealed that yield and yield components showing significantly higher with optimal fertilizers schedule of NPK (80-60-50 kg ha-1) along with ZnSO4 (50 kgha-1) to rice and recommended dose of NPK (200-80-80 kg ha-1) to maize. NPK+Zn combination in Rice-Maize cropping sequence noticed statistically superior higher mean grain yield (5338kg ha-1 and 7286kg ha-1) and straw yield (7335kg ha-1 and 9065kg ha-1) during both kharif and rabi seasons. Highest Rice equivalent yield(8814kg ha-1), higher gross returns (Rs 1,13,173 ha-1) and net returns (Rs 75,647 ha-1) is fallowed same trend with balanced nutrition during both the years of study. Higher sustainable yield index (0.81) and system productivity per day (55.50 kg ha-1day-1) were noticed with recommended dose of NPK+ ZnSO4  besides enhanced soil fertility.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of Coccinia (Coccinia grandis L. Voigt) under Different Training Systems and Growing Environments

B. Madhu Mitha, R. Swarna Priya, L. Pugalendhi, M. K. Kalarani

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 209-216
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031146

The present investigation was conducted during 2021-2022 at the Department of Vegetable Science, Horticultural College and Research institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU) to examine the performance of coccinia in different growing environments and training systems. The experiment was laid out in Factorial randomized block design (FRBD) with three replications. The treatment combinations comprised of two growing environments viz, open field (G1) and polyhouse (G2) with four training systems viz., Trellis system (T1), Vertical system (T2), Fish net (T3) and Pandal system (T4). Among these treatments, vertical training system and polyhouse cultivation was found to be superior for growth and yield attributing traits. In the vertical system of training the fruit yield was superior in polyhouse with the yield of 154.76 t/ha/year and 80.49 t/ha/year in open field. The interaction effect of polyhouse environment and vertical training (G2T2) was revealed by the highest number of fruits per vine (17.92), fruit yield/plant (5.15/kg), annual fruit yield (61.90 kg/plant) recorded in plants trained by vertical system. From the results it was concluded that, highest productivity in coccinia could be obtained from Polyhouse condition (G2) with the adoption of vertical system of training (T2).

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Performance of Parental Line and their F1 Hybrids for Yield and Quality Traits in Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.)

Vipin Kumar Maurya, G. C. Yadav

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 217-237
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031147

Brinjal or eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is one of the most important cultivated solanaceous vegetable, mainly grown for its edible fruits. The present investigation was carried out in order to obtained per se performance of parents and their cross combinations for genetic improvement in brinjal. Ten parents were crossed in diallel fashion excluding reciprocal. Half diallel set of crosses and their all possible 45 F1’s (excluding reciprocals) in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.)were evaluated in Randomized Complete Block Design (RBD) with three replications for nineteen yield and yield contributing traits during Kharif 2020-21 (Y1) and 2021-22 (Y2) at the Main Experiment Station (MES) of Department of Vegetable Science, Acharya Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Narendra Nagar, Kumarganj, Ayodhya (U.P.) India. The study revealed that highly significant differences were observed for most of the traits under study. Based on the per se performance, the parentP9 (2.61 kg) registered highest fruit yield per plant followed by P7 (2.49 kg) in both the year and pooled. The per se performance of crosses viz., P2 x P9 (3.11 kg), P4 x P6(2.66 kg), P1 x P8(2.55 kg)and P6 x P7(2.42 kg) were produced significantly highest fruit yield per plant than the general mean. These hybrids may be subjected to multi-locational and multi-seasonal trials for their release for commercial cultivation. The findings with respect to salinity tolerance must be correlated to develop the salt tolerant cultivars.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variability and Character Association Studies on Blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) for Seed Yield, Maturity and Resistance to Yellow Mosaic Virus

A. Sivakumar, G. Roopa Lavanya

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 238-247
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031148

Analysis of variance showed highly significant differences among 20 genotypes of blackgram for 12 characters studied. High GCV and PCV was recorded for number of pods per plant followed by number of clusters, number of primary branches, seed yield per plant. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent of mean was observed for number of clusters per plant, number of primary branches, harvest index, number of pods per plant, seed index, plant height, seed yield per plant and biological yield. Seed yield per plant showed positive and significant correlation at both genotypic and phenotypic levels with harvest index followed by pod length, days to maturity and biological yield. High positive direct effect on seed yield per plant was exhibited by harvest index followed by biological yield, seed index, number of pods per plant and number of primary branches per plant at genotypic level. At phenotypic level high positive direct effect on seed yield per plant was exhibited by harvest index, biological yield, number of pods per plant and days to 50% flowering. Hence, selection based on these traits would be effective in increasing the seed yield. Twenty genotypes were screened against YMV out of which only PU-31 showed resistant reaction. Fifteen genotypes showed moderately resistant reaction. Two of them showed moderately susceptible reaction and the other two genotypes showed susceptible reaction towards YMV.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of STCR-IPNS Based Nutrient Application on Soil Health, Yield, Nutrient Content and Uptake of Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) in Eastern Plain Zone of Uttar Pradesh, India

Ravindra Sachan, Tarence Thomas, Hanuman Prasad Pandey, Abhishek Tiwari, Avanish Kumar, Pratistha Yadav, Abhishek Yadav, Mandeep Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 248-258
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031149

The improvement in grain yield characters was the manifestation of improved growth characters as a result of higher uptake of nutrients caused by balanced supply of nutrients in this regard soil test based nutrient management approaches aims provide a scientific basis for balanced fertilization to obtain more yield per unit of fertilizer investment. An experiment was conducted during kharif season 2017-18 in the Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Research Farm, SHUATS, Prayagraj. The cursory glance of data revealed that the bulk density and particle density of soil was found to be non-significant in different levels of fertilizer recommendation based on soil test values. The maximum soil pore space (60.37%) and water retaining capacity (81.25 %) was recorded in treatment T4 [STCR + 5 t FYM]. The maximum available Nitrogen (305.82 kg ha-1), available Phosphorus (26.90 kg ha-1), available Potassium (205.07 kg ha-1) and available Sulphur (14.23 ppm ha-1) in soil was recorded in treatment T8 [STCR + @ 50 % FYM + @ 50 % S]. The maximum seed yield of mustard (11.53 q ha-1) and stover yield (16.03 q ha-1) was associated with the treatment T8 [STCR + @ 50 % FYM + @ 50 % S]. Result showed that that application of T8 [STCR + @ 50 % FYM + @ 50 % S] significantly recorded maximum nutrient content viz. N (2.19%), P (0.23%), K (1.68%) and S (4.8%) content in grain N (1.73%), P (0.21%), K (1.47%) and S (3.9%) content in stover and maximum nutrient uptake viz. N (25.25 kg ha-1), P (2.65 kg ha-1), K (19.37 kg ha-1) and S (55.34 kg ha-1) uptake in grain is and N (27.73 kg ha-1), P (3.36 kg ha-1), K (23.56 kg ha-1) and S (62.51 kg ha-1) uptake in stover.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Spent Mushroom Substrate on Glomus mosseae Establishment in Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum)

Rakesh Kumar Chugh, Satish Kumar Mehta

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 259-269
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031150

The application of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) in soil increases yields and improves quality of agriculture produce. Glomus mosseae is a predominant species of arbascular mycorrhizae (AM) fungus in soils and it help the plant in many ways. The substrate from the production process of cultivated mushrooms is a material with a high lignocellulosic content and rich in organic matter, which, when incorporated into the soil, changes its chemical attributes. Thus, this substrate can be used in the preparation of organic compounds, the manufacture of biofertilizers and chemical soil conditioner in semi-arid regions. Thus, the research tried to evaluate the presence of the substrates at different concentrations in the growth, development and establishment of G. mosseae fungi at 45 and 60 days after sowing to help the productivity of wheat and pearl millet for three consecutive years from 2018-19 to 2020-21under screenhouse conditions.

One year old button mushroom SMS was mixed in sterile sandy loam soil at 10, 20, 30% (w/w basis) and pure culture of G. mossea was applied at 450-500 sporocarp/kg of soil and then filled with earthen pots of 30 cm diameter. Twenty seeds of wheat cv. WH 1105 were sown in each pot during the third week of November every year and maintained. Similarly, twenty seeds of pearl millet cv. HHB 67 (I) was sown in each pot in first week of July every year and maintained. The plants raised in soil without SMS but inoculated with G. mosseae served as control. The treatments were replicated ten times and the experiments were laid out as per RCBD design. The observations on mycorrhizal colonization (%) and sporocarps numbers per 100g soil were taken at 45 and 60 days after sowing (DAS) in wheat and pearl millet.

In wheat cv. WH 1105, the root colonization (%) and sporocarp numbers/100 g soil of G. mosseae were higher when SMS at 30% was applied in soil and lowest in control.  These increased further in all treatments at 60 DAS as compared to 45 DAS stage during three years of experimentation. The root colonization at 60 DAS was significantly high at 24.9, 34.8 and 27.9 % when SMS applied in soil at 30% and it was lowest at 20.2, 30.1, 23.1% in control during 2018-19, 2019-20 and 2020-21, respectively. The sporocarp numbers at 60 DAS were also found to be high at 255, 195 and 325 sporocarps/100 g soil when 30% of SMS was applied in soil and lowest at 210, 172, 265 sporocarps/100 g soil in control during 2018-19, 2019-20 and 2020-21, respectively.

In pearl millet hybrid HHB-67 (Improved), the root colonization and sporocarp numbers/100 g soil of G. mosseae were higher when SMS at 20% was applied in soil and lowest in control.  These increased further in all treatments at 60 DAS as compared to 45 DAS stage during three years. The root colonization at 60 DAS was significantly higher in 34.0, 35.3 and 34.7% when SMS was applied at 20% and it was lowest at 34.3, 33.2, 31.1% in control during 2018-19, 2019-20 and 2020-21, respectively.  The sporocarp numbers at 60 DAS were also found to be high at 229, 250 and 174 /100 g soil when SMS at 20% was applied and it was lowest at 219, 205, 150 sporocarps/100 g soil in control during 2018-19, 2019-20 and 2020-21, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation of Physico-chemical Parameters of Soil and Soil Nutrient Index Status of Kollam District, Kerala, India

Vishnu Gopan G. M., Amreen Hasan, Tarence Thomas, Arun Alfred David, Iska Srinath Reddy

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 270-276
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031151

The present investigation was carried out at Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Sciences in the department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry lab, India In this study, a total of 27 soil samples were collected from nine different villages on 27 November 2021 in the Kollam district of Kerala, and from each village 3 soil samples were collected and analyzed for their Physico-chemical parameters by using standard laboratory techniques. According to Nutrient Index values, the villages were found to be high in Organic Carbon (2.59), Phosphorus (2.88), Calcium (3), and Magnesium (2.55). The low category was found in Nitrogen (1). The medium category was found in Potassium (1.88). According to the critical limits of soil nutrients the results observed, 100% soil samples were in low range of Nitrogen (N) (64.5 – 181.32 kg ha-1), 92.5% soil samples were in high range of Phosphorous (P) (9.40 – 56 kg ha-1), 89%  soil samples were in low to medium range of Potassium (K) (100 – 403 kg ha-1), 100% of soil samples were in the high range of Calcium (Ca) (3.2 – 18 Meq/100g), 78% of soil samples were in high range of Magnesium (Mg) ( 0 – 7.60), 100% of soil samples were in the low range of Sulphur (S) (0.96 – 7.2). The results showed that improvement has to be one for improving soil fertility and quality by practicing improved cropping patterns, decomposition of organic wastes, mulching, and tillage practices. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Plastic Mulching and Irrigation Levels on Soil Temperature, Moisture and Water Use Efficiency of Tomato Crop (Solanum lycopersicum)

Gottam Kishore, Banda Maheswara Babu, Lakshmi Durga Mattaparti

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 277-282
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031152

Farmers in India rarely employ plastic mulches in tomato cultivation, despite the fact that it has the potential to save irrigation water, manage weeds, and increase output. The precision of irrigation water for tomato production using various colour plastic mulches was evaluated in an experimental farm at UAS-Raichur. Because of the effect of irrigation levels, the 120 percent evapotranspiration based irrigation treatment had the most soil moisture availability, while the 60 percent evapotranspiration irrigation by drip had the lowest, and optimal soil moisture was maintained using plastic colour mulches. The maximum temperature was recorded in white on black plastic colour mulch (3.690C), which absorbs 100 percent of solar radiation, and the highest temperature was measured in black plastic colour mulch (3.690C), which absorbs 100 percent of solar radiation (2.250C). The water use efficiency was highest when 80 percent ET was combined with white on black plastic colour mulch (26.77 kg/m3).

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Baby Corn (Zea mays L.) to Levels of Nitrogen and Detasseling

O. Vamshi, S. C. Sahoo

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 283-288
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031153

A field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2020-21 to study the effect of levels of nitrogen and detasseling on yield and economics of baby corn. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications comprising of six main plot treatments (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 kg N ha-1) and two sub plot treatments (with tassel and without tassel). Application of 160 kg N ha-1 produced 2.22 cobs plant-1, which was statistically similar with application of 200 kg N ha-1 (2.44). Application of 160 kg N ha-1 produced optimum weight (9.23 g cob-1) of dehusked baby corn. Detasseled plots produced in higher number of cobs plant -1(1.69) and heavier dehusked cobs (8.63 g) than the plants having tassel. The optimum yield of baby corn (2072 kg ha-1) was obtained with application of 160 kg N ha-1. Detasseling resulted in 8.4 per cent higher production of dehusked baby corn as compared with plots having tassel. But, the plots with tassel produced 10.3 per cent higher yield of green fodder as compared to the crop without tassel. The highest net return of Rs 155144 ha-1 was obtained from the treatment receiving 160 kg N ha-1. Detasseled plots gave 9.97 per cent higher net profit than the plots with tassel.

Open Access Original Research Article

Appraising Components of Genetic Variation and Association among Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Breeding Lines for Yield and Its Component Traits

Bupesh Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 289-294
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031154

The present study was undertaken to estimate components of genetic variation and to ascertain association among rice breeding lines for yield and its component traits. Sixty eight rice breeding lines along with four checks were evaluated in Augmented Block Design during kharif 2021. Analysis of variance indicated presence of sufficient genetic variation among the lines, while estimates of components of variation revealed maximum contribution of genotypic variance to the phenotypic variance indicating its exploitation through selection and hybridization. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was observed for 1000 grain weight, plant height, days to 50 per cent flowering and grain yield per plant indicating that these traits can be improved through selection. Simultaneously, estimates of association revealed that grain yield was found to have significant and positive association with 1000 grain weight and grain length indicating that these traits are suitable for indirect selection whereas, it exhibited significant negative association with days to 50 per cent flowering and panicle length.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Different Microbial Inoculum on Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Growth, Development and Nutrient Availability

Vikash Singh, Adesh Singh, Shikhar Verma, Mausmi Rastogi, Praveen Kumar Yadav, Vivek Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 295-301
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031155

A field experiment was conducted on Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) during the autumny season of 2020-21 at Technology Park of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut (U.P.). The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD). Results revealed that the growth parameters of mung bean viz., number of (331229 plants/ha), plant height (67.7 cm/plant), trifoliate leaves/plant (12.7), number of branches/plant (4.5), dry matter accumulation (18.7 g/plant), leaf area index (5.72), CGR (7.6 g/m2/day) 50-at harvest and grain yield of (1,106 kg/ha) improved by various treatments over control, being highest under NPK Consortia+ZSB, each @ 20 ml/kg. Similarly, this treatment also produced an accumulation of 59.8% more dry matter/plant than control. However, application of NPK Consortia+ZSB, each @ 20 ml/kg recorded higher available N, P, K and Zn followed by NPK Consortia @ 20 ml/kg and RDF (20:40 kg/ha).

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Seed Priming as Pre-Treatment Factors on Germination and Seedling Vigour of Tomato

Jui Ray, Sanjoy Kumar Bordolui

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 302-311
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031156

This study investigated the germination and seedling vigour of tomato seeds cultivar BCT-25 under different priming treatments with the objective of enhancing the crop establishment under field conditions. We primed seeds with Moringa leaf extract for 18 hours; 1% NaCl for 36 hours; 10% Polyethylene glycol (PEG) for 12 hours; 100 ppm GA3, 5% KNO3 (under dark condition) and 1000 ppm Thiourea for 24 hours; distilled water for 12 hours; 2% KH2PO4 and 93 ppm NAA (at 4°C) for 6 hours and the control (T0). All the treatments improved the seed germination and seedling vigour; however, we found the highest vigour from hydro priming followed by KH2PO4 in both years in contrast with the minimum vigour index from T0. The highest mean germination percentage was found with hydro priming (T7) followed by T8, T1, T2, T3 during both years, while the lowest average germination percentage was recorded for T0. The highest magnitude of seedling emergence under field conditions was recorded with hydro priming, i.e., 89.67% in first and 86.67% in second year followed by T8, T1, T2 while it was lowest for T0 under laboratory condition. Hydro priming had the highest field vigour indexes than all other treatments. Hydro-priming and KH2PO4 had the best performance than other priming treatments. But, in some cases the hydro-priming and KH2PO4 were similar in both laboratory and field condition. We concluded that during the initial stage of plant growth hydro-priming and KH2PO4 had the best responses than other priming treatments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment on the Impact of Various Agroforestry Systems on Soil Quality Parameters

V. Ramaswamy, K. Sivakumar, S. Thiyageshwari, R. Anandham

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 312-319
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031157

An experiment was conducted during month of February 2022 at Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to identify the effect of different agroforestry systems on soil quality parameters. Soil samples were collected from nine different agroforestry systems from three major agroforestry sites such as agrisilviculture, silvihorticulture and silvipasture systems. Soil was analysed for soil quality parameters viz., pH, EC, bulk density, porosity, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium and available micronutrients. Different agroforestry systems show their effect as variations in soil physical and chemical properties. Results from the study reveals that the agroforestry system Acacia leucophloea + Guinea grass shows higher fertility status than other agroforestry systems. This system was noticed to have higher amount of available nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium and available micronutrients compared to other agroforestry systems taken into account for research. Casuarina equisetifolia + Sorghum agroforestry system was observed to have low available P, available K and available micronutrients than other systems. Further studies are needed to define an agroforestry system for proper land use management and improving fertility status of the soil by including other soil quality parameters viz.,  biological and microbial parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Growth Regulators on Plant Growth and Yield of Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria L.) cv. Arka Bahar

Anna Sabu, Anita Kerketta, Samir E. Topno

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 320-325
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031158

An experiment was conducted during 2021 to study the effect of different growth regulators on bottle gourd cv. Arka Bahar during kharif season with three growth regulators at different concentrations: Ethrel (100ppm, 200ppm, 300ppm), NAA (150 ppm, 200ppm, 250ppm) and GA3 (50ppm, 100ppm, 150ppm).Water was used as control. The growth regulators were sprayed at two and four leaf stage. All the treatments were replicated three times in a randomized block design keeping the plot size 2m×2m. Plant growth regulators treatments rendered their significant effect on almost all the growth, flowering and yield of bottle gourd. The treatment T9 GA3 150 ppm was found maximum in increasing the vine length (9.01m) whereas T3 Ethrel 200 ppm was found most effective in terms of days to first appearance of male (40.89 days) and female flower (45.44 days), node number to first male (8.11) and female flower (10.11), number of male (16.33) and female flowers (11.33) per vine, fruit diameter (8.67 cm), fruit length (39.84 cm), fruit weight (1064.28 g), number of fruits per plant (10.11), fruit yield per plant (8.72 kg), fruit yield per hectare(29.01 t/ha) The significantly higher gross return (Rs 348120/ha), Net profit (Rs 269898/ha) and B: C ratio (4.45) was also recorded under ethrel 200 ppm (T3). Overall results revealed that application of ethrel 200 ppm proved to be better for different growth and yield traits in bottle gourd.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Biofertilizer and Phosphorus on Growth, Yield Components and Yield of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

Abisha P., Shikha Singh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 326-331
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031159

A field experiment was conducted at Crop Research Farm (CRF), Department of Agronomy, Naini Agricultural Institute, SHUATS, Prayagraj (UP) during Rabi 2021 to study the “Effects of Biofertilizer and Phosphorus on Growth, Yield Components and Yield of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L)”. It was consisting of three combinations of biofertilizer and phosphorus. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with ten treatments each replicated three times. The experiment results were revealed that the growth and yield parameters such as plant height (54.94 cm), number of nodules per plant (36.28), plant dry weight (23.71g/plant), number of pods per plant (34.29), number of seeds per pod (1.89), test weight (245.76 g) at harvest significantly recorded in T9 with the application of Rhizobium+PSB + Phosphorus 60kg/ha. Moreover, grain yield (2.07 t/ha), stover yield (3.58 t ha-1), gross return (108523.7 INR/ha), net return (75364.02 INR/ha) and B:C ratio (2.27) were also recorded higher in T9 which is Rhizobium+PSB + Phosphorus 60kg/ha compared to other treatments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Elites Isolates of Bradyrhizobia Nodulating on Groundnut Varieties (Arachis hypogaea L.) at Assosa District of Western Ethiopia

Bakala Anbessa, Dessie Almaw, Zerihun Getachew

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 332-337
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031160

A field experiment was conducted on Nitisols of Asossa Agricultural Research Centre during 2017/18 2018/19 cropping season to investigate the response of yield, partial budget analysis of ground nut varieties to bio-fertilizer and inorganic nitrogen. Two locally suitable varieties 4 groundnut rhizobial strains with control and 18 kg N ha-1, totally 12 treatments had combined in factorial RCBD. TSP fertilizer was applied uniformly to all plots at 46 kg P2O5 ha-1. The treatments consists of: two Varieties of groundnut (V1= Muniputer V2= Babile 2) and 4-strains with 18 kg N ha-1 and uninoculated (control) factorial treatment combination were tested. Analysis of variance for two factors randomized complete block design (Table 1) revealed highly significant difference (P < 0.001) due to the main effects of rhizobia and verities for the means of seed yield. On the other hand the interaction effects of rhizobia and varieties had non-significant (p>0.05) for the means of seed yield, nodule dry weight and straw dry weight. The highest (186.5) nodules per plants were recorded from the interaction effect of Dibate moderate and Maniputer variety, while less nodules per plant (76.25) were produced by Dibate moderate with Babile variety. The Dibate 2 rhizobia had the highest net-benefit of 67,655 Ethiopian birr. The lowest net benefit was obtained by the application of the Dibate moderate and none inoculant. The profitability of the study showed that application of Moderate 2 rhizobia which provided the relatively high net benefit (67,655 ETB), was recommended to apply bio fertilizers. The % MRR between any pair of undominated treatments denotes the return per unit of investment in fertilizer expressed as a percentage. Economic analysis revealed that maximum marginal rate of return was recorded with application of Dibate 2 (9257.2%). So we could be recommended Dibate 2 strain for ground nut production in Asossa district. The best recommendation for treatments is not necessarily based on the highest marginal rate of return, rather based on the minimum acceptable marginal rate of return and the treatment with the high net benefit, relatively low variable cost together with an acceptable MRR becomes the tentative recommendation.

Open Access Original Research Article

In silico Analysis of Transcription Factor Binding Sites and Impact of Defense Responsive Phytohormones in OsPR1a

Diksha Kumari, Bishun Deo Prasad, Padmanabh Dwivedi, Sangita Sahni

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 338-345
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031161

A variety of biotic and abiotic stress conditions result in the production and accumulation of pathogenesis related (PR) proteins in plant. Transcriptional regulation of PR genes plays a vital role in defense response in plant. In rice, the role of the PR1 gene in defense response have been studied, but critical examination of the OsPR1a gene after a treatment with defense responsive phytohormones and their regulation via promoter analysis have not been examined indepth. Several signalling mechanisms are involved in the induction and repression of defense genes, which are mediated by salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). Expression profiling was carried out to determine the effects of phytohormones, salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) at 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h after treatment. Expression profiling indicates cumulative upregulation of OsPR1a gene at 12 h after SA and JA treatments, whereas it downregulates at 24 h and 48 h after JA treatment. We also performed a comprehensive in silico analysis of the promoter region of OsPR1a gene to predict how the transcription factor binding site (TFBS) regulate its expression.

Open Access Original Research Article

Grain Yield and Economic Importance of Bio Fertilizer Rates of Soybean at Begi and Asossa Districts Western Ethiopia

Bakala Anbessa, Dessie Almaw, Zerihun Getachew

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 346-351
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031162

A field experiment was conducted on Nitisols of Asossa Agricultural Research Centre during 2017/18 to 2018/2019 cropping season toinvestigate the response of yieldpartial budget analysis  to biofertilizer rates.The N fertilizer treatments considered in the study consisted of six levels (rates) of biofertilizer, one nationally recommended inorganic N and negative control of N.The treatments consists of: 125 g ha-1  (T1), 250 g ha-1  (T2), 500 g ha-1 (T3), 625 g ha-1 (T4), 750 g ha-1 (T5), 900 g ha-1  (T6), negative control (T7) and 18kg N ha-1. The treatments were laid out as a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications.The analysis of variance revealed that bio-fertilizer rates significantly (P < 0.01) affected grain yield at Begi district, while non-siginificant (p<0.05) at Asossa district. The maximum (3483.7 kg ha-1 and   1750.9 kg ha-1) grain yield was recorded from 500 g ha-1bio-fertilizer at Begi and Asossa district respectively.  The application of 500 g ha-1biofertilizer had the highest net-benefit of 20850.8 ETB, followed by 125 g ha -1biofertilizer which also had a total of 20196.8 ETB net benefit at Asossa district, while the application of 500 g ha-1biofertilizerhad the highest net-benefit of 41644.4 ETB, followed by 125 g ha-1biofertilizer which also had a total of 38315.6 ETB net benefit at Begi district. The application of 500 g ha-1bio-fertilizer ha-1 had highest net benefit. Therefore, we recommended the treatment 500 g ha-1since it produced high marginal rate of return, high net benefit and relatively small total cost of production, for soybean production in Begi and Asossa area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Taxonomical Exploration of Arboreal Members of the Family Anacardiaceae in District Poonch, Jammu and Kashmir (India)

Rani Mughal, Muzafer Ahmad Sheikh, Fayaz Qazi, Jawerriya Qazi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 352-364
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031163

The Poonch district is part of the Pir-Panchal region of Jammu and Kashmir, which is home to a distinct landscape and a variety of climates. Even with these significant variations, this region has been able to maintain a high level of biodiversity. There are certain groups of flora that have eluded researchers' attention, including the Anacardiaceae family, which is one of those groups. The purpose of this study was to investigate the current occurrence as well as taxonomical studies of the arboreal members of the Anacardiaceae family. For several decades, the district has been observing the occurrence of these plant species both in sub-tropical and temperate zones with various ethnobotanical uses. This angiospermic arboreal flora group found at an altitude between 988 and 3004 m is composed of eight species in five genera, including one shrub and seven trees, one evergreen, and seven deciduous species, as well as two indigenous and six exotic species. Among the plant genera, Pistacia and Rhus recorded 2 and 3 species, respectively, while Cotinus, Lannea and Mangifera recorded one species each.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Integrated Nutrient Management Practices on Soil Health Parameters and Yield Attributes of Soybean (Glycine max L.) var. JS-9560 in Inceptisol of Alluvial Soil, District Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh

. Balram, Arun Alfred David, Tarence Thomas, Iska Srinath Reddy

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 378-383
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031165

A field trial was carried out during the Kharif season 2021-22 at the Research farm, of Naini Agriculture Institute Prayagraj India. The experiment was laid down in randomized block design comprised three fertility levels control NPK @ 100%, Rhizobium + PSB @ 100%, Vermicompost and Sulphur @ 100%, 75% and @ 50% respectively replicating thrice and rhizobium phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) inoculation. Among the fertility levels, the application of 100% N, P, K, 40 kg N ha-1, 60 kg P2O5 ha-1, 40 kg K2O ha-1 and 100% Vermicompost 5 t ha-1, Sulphur 20 kg ha-1 in the experiment. It was concluded that the texture of soil sandy loam, the soil health parameters respectively Bulk density ranged between 1.21 to 1.31 Mg m-3, Particle density 2.08 to 2.50 Mg m-3 Pore space 45.12% to 51.23% water holding capacity 36.14% to 62.06% Organic carbon 0.319% to 0.613%, soil pH ranged between 7.34 to 7.78, EC ranged between 0.157 to 0.265 dsm-1, Nitrogen 182.56 to 320.75 kg ha-1, Phosphorus 16.12 to 33.67 kg ha-1, Potassium 182.24 to 238.76 kg ha-1, Sulphur 16.03 to 29.58 mg kg-1, It was observed that for post-harvest, treatment T9 was best in yield attributes plant height 97.18 cm, number of branches plant-1 7.1, 5, pods plant-1 74.83, seed pod-14.44 and seed yield (2337.25 kg ha-1) T9 were to be found best treatment combination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity among Genetically Different Genotypes of Chilli (Capsicum annum L.)

Ajaz Ah. Malik, Geetika Malik, K. Hussain, S. Narayan, Shahnaz Mufti, Anil Kumar, Gazala Nazir, Umiyiam Masoodi, Mudasir Magray

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 384-393
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031166

This study evaluated the antioxidant power, flavonoids and the total phenolic contents of forty-five genotypes of chilli. The antioxidant activities were tested forextraction scavenging using diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), azinobisethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), assay of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and determining total phenolics (TP) and total flavonoids (TF) contents. There were a significant difference in the total phenolic content (17.38–131.5mg GAE/g dry weight), total flavonoid (14.07–56.15 mg quercetin/g dry weight), DPPH (0.55–5.60 mM AAE/g dry weight), ABTS (16.03– 38.12 mM AAE/g dry weight) and FRAP (0.80– 6.40 mM GAE/dry weight). Three genotypes viz. IC-561635, CITH-HP-22 and IC-561731 exhibited highest values for all the assays. Significant correlation coefficients were identified between TP–TF (r = 0.93) DPPH-ABTS (r= 0.71), ABTS-TP (r=0.81) and FRAP-TF (r=0.89). Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped the studied genotypes into seven clusters. The identified genotypes of chilli are powerful sources of natural antioxidants that slow down the oxidation processes in the body by protecting them from the active oxygen species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Nitrogen Levels and Weed Management Practices on Soil Quality of Wetland Rice

Tikendra Kumar Yadav, S. P. Singh, M. K. Singh, M. K. Singh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 394-400
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031167

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most popular cereal crops serves as the staple food for world’s half of the population. Nutrients and weeds are two important factors that determine the productivity of wetland rice. Nitrogen (N) is major nutrient that contributes in rice production. Weeds are the major constraint limiting high productivity of rice. Weeds may remove considerable quantity of nutrients besides competing for light; space and moisture thus become a major constraint in wetland rice. Considering these, a field experiment was conducted for two successive kharif seasons of 2018 and 2019 at Agricultural Research Farm, B.H.U., Varanasi, UP (India). The study included influence of nitrogen levels and weeds management practices (WMP) post harvest soil quality of wetland rice. The experiment was laid out in split plot design involving five nitrogen levels viz. control, 60 kg N ha-1 through inorganic, 60 kg N ha-1 as farmyard manure (FYM), 90 kg N ha-1 & 120 kg N ha-1 in main plots and four weed management practices viz. Azolla 2 t ha-1, BGA 1.25 kg ha-1, two hand weeding (2HW) at 20 & 40 days after transplanting (DAT) along with weedy in sub plots and replicated thrice. The results showed that the FYM treated plots exhibited maximum residual NPK and organic carbon with comparatively less pH in post harvest soil of wetland rice. Post harvest soil studies indicated that among weed management practices Azolla facilitated higher residual NPK and organic carbon and least pH in wetland rice field.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Water Deficit on Productivity of Some Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Genotypes

E. H. El-Seidy, Mohamed Mansour, Eman Abokhalifa, Ashgan M. Abd El-Azeem

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 401-410
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031168

Two field experiments were laid out during 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 growing seasons at Sakha region, Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt to evaluate the productivity and stress tolerance of ten barely genotypes under full irrigation and water stress conditions. Eight traits for barley were measured: days to maturity, plant height, spike length, number of grains/spike, number of spikes/m2, 1000-grain weight, biological yield and grain yield. Also, stress susceptibility index (SSI) was calculated. Results showed that, all the studied traits were decreased under water stress conditions. Mean squares due to seasons, water treatments, genotypes and their interactions were significant or highly significant for most studied traits. From the results, Giza 133 and Line 3 were the earliest genotypes in maturity. Line 4 under normal irrigation and Giza 2000 and Line 5 under stress gave the highest values of grain yield and most of its components. From SSI data, Giza 124, Giza 126, Giza 2000, Line 3 and Line 5 considered as the most tolerant genotypes where it had values less than the unity. so, it can be used in improving barley productivity under water stress condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variability and Character Association Study for Yield Enhancement in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Aneeta Yadav, . Neha, Ravi Das

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 411-419
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031169

This study was conducted to examine 20 bread wheat genotypes with two checks to investigate genetic parameters, correlations and genetic diversity. This experiment was done in main experimental station of Agricultural Research Farm, Rama University (U.P), Mandhana, Kanpur during Rabi Season, 2020-21 in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. Analysis of variance showed a very significant difference between the 20 bread wheats of the 11 characters investigated. Genotype HPAN111 showed high grain yields per plant during the control period based on average production. Genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) was recorded highest for Biological yield per plant (15.073%). Phenotypic Coefficient of Variation (PCV) was recorded highest for Biological yield per plant (16.316%). Environmental coefficient of variation (ECV) was recorded highest for Effective tiller per plant (13.591%). High heritability was observed for                       most of the traits and it was noted highest for Biological yield per plant (85.4%). Genetic advancement was recorded highest for Biological yield per plant (643.733%). The high Genetic advance as per cent of mean was recorded for Biological yield per plant (28.687%). Grain yield per plant shows Significant Positive Correlation with Biological yield per plant (0.8803**) at genotypic and phenotypic level.

Open Access Original Research Article

N, P and K Uptake by Crop and Weed as Influenced by Nutrient Levels and Weed Management in Mustard

Shashank Tyagi, Arun Kumar, S.C. Paul, S.S. Acharya

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 420-432
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031170

A field experiment was conducted in Rabi season of 2018-19 and 2019-20 at Research farm of Bihar Agricultural College, Sabour to assess the impact of nutrient and weed management on N, P and K uptake by crop and weed in mustard. This experiment with 3 nutrient levels (N1-soil test-based recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF), N2-100 % RDF, N3-125 % RDF) in main plot; 8 weed management (W1-Weedy, W2-Hand weeding (HW), W3-pendimethalin, W4-pendimethalin followed by (fb) quizalofop, W5-pendimethalin fb clodinafop, W6-oxyflourfen, W7-oxyflourfen fb quizalofop, W8-oxyflourfen fb clodinafop) in sub plots, laid in split plot design. Results indicated that in 2018-19, N, P and K uptake by mustard was found maximum under 125% RDF. Hand weeding exhibited highest N, P and K uptake by crop over weedy. Among herbicides, maximum N, P and K uptake by crop was noted with pendimethalin 30 EC 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 PE fb quizalofop 5 EC 60 g a.i. ha-1 PoE. In 2019-20, hand weeding at 25 and 50 DAS along with 125% RDF exhibited highest N, P and K uptake by crop. Among herbicides, application of pendimethalin 30 EC 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 PE fb quizalofop 5 EC 60 g a.i. ha-1 PoE along with 125% RDF exhibited highest N, P and K uptake by the crop. In both the years 2018-19 and 2019-20, hand weeding at 25 and 50 DAS along with 125% RDF exhibited N uptake by weeds, zero value being lower than weedy. In 2018-19, application of pendimethalin 30 EC 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 PE fb quizalofop 5 EC 60 g a.i. ha-1 PoE along with 125% RDF exhibited the lowest N and K uptake by weeds. Among nutrient levels, application of 125% RDF exhibited the lowest P uptake by weeds, however, among herbicides; application of pendimethalin 30 EC 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 PE fb quizalofop 5 EC 60 g a.i. ha-1 PoE registered the lowest P uptake by weeds. In 2019-20, application of pendimethalin 30 EC 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 PE fb quizalofop 5 EC 60 g a.i. ha-1 PoE along with 125% RDF exhibited the lowest N, P and K uptake by weeds. Thus it was concluded that pendimethalin 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 PE fb quizalofop 60 g a.i. ha-1 PoE along with 125% RDF (100:50:50:25:6.25 kg NPKSZn ha-1) enhanced N, P and K uptake by crop though hand weeding at 25 and 50 DAS along with 125% RDF (100:50:50:25:6.25 kg NPKSZn ha-1) exhibited significant improvement in nutrient uptake by crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bio-efficacy of Herbicides with Different Water Volumes and Spray Timing under Zero Tillage Rice Residue Retention Scenario against Phalaris minor in Wheat

Ankur Chaudhary, Dharam Bir Yadav, Samunder Singh, Todar Mal Poonia, Satbir Singh Punia, Narender Singh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 447-453
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031174

Background: Continuous use of the similar modes of action-based herbicides leads to the development of herbicide resistance in wheat-associated weeds in north-west India. Accelerated development of multiple resistance against most of the available post-emergence herbicides emphasize the use of pre-emergence herbicides. But, the efficacy of pre-emergence herbicide is a matter of concern as surface retained stubbles and/or straw alter herbicide efficacy associated with a direct interception of herbicide.

Methods: A field study was conducted for two rabi seasons (2018-19 and 2019-20) to optimize spray volume and time of application for improving the bio-efficacy of pre-emergence herbicides under zero tillage full rice residue scenario. The herbicidal treatments (g/ha) included pendimethalin + pyroxasulfone (1000.0+127.5) as pre-emergence (PE), pyroxasulfone (127.5) as PE, pyroxasulfone (127.5) as early post emergence (EPoE), aclonifen+diflufenican (1002+200) EPoE, halauxifen methyl+ fluroxypyr (7.3+233.4) as EPoE, flumioxazin (100) as PE with two different water volumes 500 and 1000 liter/ha along with pendimethalin fb pinoxaden (1500+50) in 500 l/ha water volume, pendimethalin (1500) as PE in 375 l/ha water volume, weed free and weedy check.

Results: The present study showed that pendimethalin + pyroxasulfone as PE with a higher spray volume of 1000 l/ha and alone application of pyroxasulfone as EPoE produced similar Phalaris minor control as with pendimethalin fb pinoxaden (PE fb Post) under full rice residue scenario in zero-till wheat.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Potassium and Sulphur on Growth and Yield of Greengram (Vigna radiata. L)

Guggilla Akhil, Victor Debbarma, Addanki Tejaswi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 454-457
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031175

The experiment was conducted during Zaid season 2021 at KVK, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P.) to study the influence of potassium and sulphur on growth and yield of greengram. The treatments consist of potassium 15, 25, 35 kg/ha and sulphur 10, 20, 30 kg/ha. The result reported that application of potassium 35 kg/ha + sulphur 30 kg/ha (Treatment 9) recorded significantly highest Plant height (45.77 cm), maximum number of branches (6.50), maximum number of nodules (21.73), maximum plant dry weight (9.66 g). It is also observed that the maximum grain yield (1,109.67 kg/ha) and stover yield (2,431.00 kg/ha) was obtained with the application of potassium 35 kg/ha along with sulphur 30 kg/ha. It was concluded that application of potassium and sulphur performs positively and improves growth and yield parameters of Greengram.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Selected Bioagents against Alternaria Leaf Spot of French Bean (Phaseolous vulgaris L.)

Pottupalli Govardhani, Shashi Tiwari, Veeragandham Supriya, Patthi Lakshmi Sindu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 458-463
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031176

French bean (Phaseolous vulgaris L.) is a significant food, legume crop utilized as a pulse and green vegetable crop, belongs to family fabaceae. The French bean is a cool-season, day- neutral vegetable that can withstand extreme temperatures. Area, production and productivity on French bean in India (2019-20) were 22.1 Mha, 2226 million Tonnes and 7-10 t/ha. They are high in protein and have a similar texture to meat. Green pods have 1.7 g protein, 0.1 g fat, 4.5 g carbohydrate, 1.8 g fibre, and are high in minerals and vitamins in a 100 g serving. Several diseases affects French bean crop majorly and cause yield loss Alternaria leaf spot (Alternaria alternata), Angular leaf spot (ALS) (Phaeoisariopsis griseola), Bean rust (Uromyces appendiculatus), Anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum), Aschochyta leaf spot (Ascochyta phaseolorum) and Cercospora leaf spot (Cercospora canescens). Among them, Alternaria leaf spot of French bean is one of the most severe disease, which is caused by A. alternata in the French bean. An experiment was conducted in the Zaid season to check the efficacy of bioagents against A. alternata on field conditions. Bioagents viz.,Trichoderma viride, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis as seed treatment. An untreated replication served as control. Among the treatments, the maximum germination percentage maximum plant height (cm) at 90 DAS , maximum no. of primary branches and secondary branches at 60 DAS was recorded in T4 – T. viride @2.5%+ P. fluorescens @ 2.5% followed by T1 – T. viride @ 5% as compared to untreated check control T0 . The minimum disease intensity (%) at 75 DAS was recorded in T4 – T. viride @ 2.5% + P. fluorescens @ 2.5 %, followed by T1 – T. viride @ 5% as compared to untreated check control T0.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Levels of Mycorrhization on the Growth Parameters and Nutrient Content of Chilli

. Sarita, Rakesh Kumar, Satish Mehta, Lochan Sharma, Pankaj Yadav

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 464-472
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031177

Aim: To evaluate the effect of different levels of Glomus mosseae on plant growth parameters chlorophyll content, mycorrhizal colonization (%), sporocarp number and nutrient content of chilli.

Study Design: The experiment was conducted using a complete randomized design (CRD).

Study Area: To study the mycorrhizal effect on the chilli plants, observations were documented in Sceenhouse and laboratory conditions. Plant Pathology Laboratory, CCS HAU, Hisar was use for the laboratory work. The experiment was undertaken during crop season 2018

Methodology: Mycorrhizal fungi was raised and maintained on wheat and pearl millet in earthen pots. Further experiment was conducted and Plant height, Root length, Dry weight of root and shoot, Mycorrhizal colonization, Sporocarp number, SPAD chlorophyll content and NPK content was observed.

Results: Mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association between a fungus and the root system of vascular plants. Mycorrhizal associations help the host plants to thrive in adverse soil conditions and drought situations by increasing the root surface area and nutrient uptake efficiency. In the present study Glomus mosseae was tested on chilli plant with different inoculum levels (100, 150, 200 and 400 chlamydospores/kg soil) and found that Plant height, Root length, Dry weight of root and shoot, SPAD chlorophyll content, per cent mycorrhizal colonization and sporocarp number were maximum when 400 spores were used for inoculation and minimum were found in untreated plants. Among all the four observation period i.e. 30, 45, 60 and 90 days after transplanting maximum NPK content was observed at 90 days after transplanting.

Conclusion: Among All the inoculum levels (100, 150, 200 and 400 chlamydospores/kg soil) maximum plant growth parameters, NPK content and chlorophyll content was observed when 400 chlamydospores/kg soil were used.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Test based Targeted yield equations for blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) through Integrated Plant Nutrition System on Alfisol

E. Amutha Sankari, R. Santhi, M. Gopalakrishnan, S. Maragatham, R. P. Gnanamalar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 473-484
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031178

Using Ramamoorthy's inductive methodology for assessing the soil test based crop requirement by adopting an Integrated Plant Nutrition System to create Fertilizer Prescription Equations (FPEs) for blackgram with the prime objective of attaining the targeted yield by the farmers. A field experiment was conducted out on red non-calcareous sandy loam soil belonging to the Palaviduthi soil series (Typic Rhodustalf) during rabi 2021-22. The experiment comprised of eleven treatments viz., STCR - NPK alone and STCR - IPNS for yield targets 1.0,1.2,and 1.4 t ha-1, Blanket (25:50:25) @ 100% with and without FYM (12.5 t ha-1), FYM alone @ 6.25 and 12.5 t ha-1 and absolute control in randomized block design with three replications. From the experimental data, basic parameters viz., nutrient requirement (NR), per cent contribution from soil (Cs), per cent contribution from fertilizers (Cf), and per cent contribution from FYM (Cfym) were computed. The quantity of fertilizers contributed by the application of Farmyard manure was assessed. It has been found that the nutrient requirement for producing one quintal grain of blackgram was 4.77 kg of N, 4.50 kg of P2O5, and 5.05 kg of K2O. The per cent contribution from soil (Cs) was 15.61, 29.91, and 8.12 for N, P, and K respectively and the percent contribution from fertilizers (Cf) and FYM (Cfym) was 48.61 and 37.19 for N, 44.78, and 14.63 for P2O5 and 55.72 and 31.71 for K2O. FPEs for blackgram were generated using these basic parameters through a Soil Test Crop Response based Integrated Plant Nutrition System (STCR-IPNS). Fertilizer Prescription Equations (FPEs) created in this mode were used to create nomograms for a range of soil test values and yield targets. Thus the Inductive cum Targeted Yield Model used to develop fertilizer prescription equations provides a strong basis for soil nutrient maintenance consistent with high productivity and efficient nutrient management in farming for sustainable and enduring agriculture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Newer Selected Insecticides, Beaveria bassiana and Neem Oil against Diamond Back Moth (Plutella xylostella)(L.) in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata)

Tejasri Kommoji, Anoorag R. Tayde

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 485-491
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031179

The trail was conducted at Crop research farm, Department of Entomology of Naini Agriculture institute, SHUATS, Prayagraj, (U.P) during rabi 2021-2022 to study the efficacy of newer selected insecticides, Beaveria bassiana and Neem oil against Diamond back moth (Plutella  xylostella) in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata) and the experiment was laid out in randomised block design with eight treatments and each was replicated thrice using a variety green soccer 546. The treatments are Spinosad 45% SC, Indoxacarb 14.5%SC, Emamectin benzoate 5%SG, Chlorantraniliprole 18.5%SC, Fipronil 5%SG, Beaveria bassaina (1x108 CFU/gm), Neem oil 0.3% along with an untreated control. The data on Percent reduction of larval population were significantly superior over control but among all treatments, chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC is best effective for diamond back moth had showing (80.35%) percent reduction of larval population followed by Spinosad 45% SC (77.06%), Indoxacarb 14.5SC (73.43%), Emamectin benzoate 5%SG (71.77%), Fipronil (68.26%),Beaveria bassiana (67.06%) and Neem oil was least effective had showing (61.18%) percent reduction of larval population but superior over control. Among all the treatments, highest yield (314.9q/ha) and Cost-benefit ratio (1:7.59) was recorded in Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 %SC followed by Spinosad 45%SC with a yield of (273.73q/ha) and Cost-benefit ratio (1:6.77) as compared to control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Status and Distribution of Sulphur in Acid Soils of Imphal East District, Manipur

Kasinam Doruk, Indira Sarangthem, N. Surbala Devi, Edwin Luikham, N. Gopimohan Singh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 492-503
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031180

A pot experiment was conducted with thirty soils of varying characteristics for selecting the most suitable chemical extractant for available sulphur. Rice variety CAU-R1(Tamphaphou) was grown in pots treated with and without sulphur for eight weeks. At harvest dry matter of rice was recorded. The average dry matter yield increased significantly @30 kg ha-1 levels of S application. Sulphur in the soils was extracted with four different extractants. The extractable S of the soils varied considerably with the soils and the extractant used. In term of the efficiency of extraction,the extractants were in the order : 500 ppm Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O > 0.5M NaHCO3 > 0.5M NH4OAc > 0.15% CaCl2. Available sulphur extracted by 0.5M NH4OAc showed the highest correlation with Dry Matter Yield (0.510882**) , Total Plant Uptake (0.548974**), Bray’s % Yield (0.514887**), Bray’s % Uptake (0.70565**).Therefore,0.5M NH4OAc extractant was rated as most promising extractant for assessing S availability for rice in acid soils of Manipur. pH (-0.12481, -0.04153837, 0.15850443, -0.02106*), EC (-0.2696*,-0.08246, -0.21701*,-0.28734*),CEC (-0.27441*, -0.24183*, -0.18531, -0.28287*), sand (-0.00152, -0.0166 , -0.10168, 0.121165), silt (-0.00858 , -0.15039, -0.10699, 0.030722), Ca2+ (-0.1528, -0.1056 , 0.007184 , -0.09847) and Mg2+ (-0.27248*, -0.16614, -0.07896, -0.24056*) had negative correlations with all extractants of S. The positive relationships of almost all extractants of sulphur with clay texture (0.040966, 0.20296*, 0.306651**,-0.0879), organic carbon(0.096396, 0.32224**, 0.201351*, -0.09377), nitrogen (0.036851, 0.203472*, 0.24579*, -0.06179), phosphorus (0.301882**, 0.268273719*, 0.322386047**, 0.209681*) and potassium (0.023932, -0.00667852, -0.04825616 , 0.079524) were observed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Phosphorous and Boron Levels on Growth and Yield of Lentil (Lens culinaris L.)

Pushpa Vittal Myageri, Joy Dawson

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 504-510
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031181

A field experiment was conducted during Rabi season (2021) at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P.). The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly natural in soil reaction (pH 7.1), low in organic carbon (0.28%), available Nitrogen (225 kg/ha), available Phosphorous (19.50 kg/ha) and available potassium (213.7 kg/ha). The Treatments consisted of 3 levels of Phosphorous (Phosphorous -30 kg/ha), (Phosphorous -45 kg/ha) (Phosphorous -60 kg/ha) and 3 levels of Boron (Boron -1 kg/ha), (Boron -1.5 kg/ha) and (Boron - 2 kg/ha). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with 9 treatments and replicated thrice. The results reported that significantly maximum plant height (53.50 cm), dry weight (8.26 g/plant) and a greater number of nodules (7.80) were found higher with application of treatment 60 kg/ha phosphorous + 2 kg/ha Boron. No. pods/plant (103.70), seeds/pod (2.00), test weight (24.38 g), grain yield (1837.72 kg/ha) and Stover yield (2906.16 kg/ha) were recorded in (treatment-9) that is with 60 kg/ha phosphorous + 2 kg/ha Boron.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biology and Population Dynamics of Two Spotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus Linnaeus) Under Protected Cultivation

K. Prakash, V. Baskaran, E. Sumathi, A. Suganthi, R. Swarnapriya

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 511-520
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031182

Two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch is the major polyphagous pest on crops and cause considerable yield loss. Cucumber cultivation become possible throughout the year in closed condition with improved agronomic practices. The cultivation of cucumber under controlled condition is threatened by the occurrence of various pests, of which mites occupied greater importance in yield reduction. The influences of weather parameters on population dynamics of T. urticae were studied under protected condition during autumn season of 2021 and continued till last week of April. The observations revealed that the mite population was significantly increased under closed condition and the recorded total developmental period of mites was 6.47 ± 0.003 days, these changes in the biology might resulted from variation in the weather parameters in closed conditions. The population dynamics of two spotted spider mites differed significantly under the protected cultivation compared to the open field condition and a peak population of mites were observed during the second fortnight of march (16th standard meteorological week) and the lowest population was observed during month of November and December as the results of unfavorable environmental condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Integrated Nutrient Management on Physico-chemical properties of soil in Pea (Pisum sativum L.) var. GS 10

Pranav Kumar, Arun Alfred David, Tarence Thomas, Iska Srinath Reddy

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 521-526
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031183

During the rabi season of 2021-2022, a field experiment was conducted at the soil science research farm of the Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences in Prayagraj, UttarPradesh, India. Three different parameters viz., three levels of NPK, FYM at 0%, 50%, and 100% ha-1, and three levels of rhizobium inoculation at 0%, 25%, and 50% ha-1 were used in the study. The result obtained with treatment T9[I3@100% + F3@ 100% + R3@50%] had a bulk density (1.17 Mg m-3) at 0-15cm and (1.18 Mg m-3) at 15-30 cm, particle density (2.41 Mg m-3) at 0-15cm and (2.42 Mg m-3) at 15-30, pore space (58.26%) at 0-15cm and (58.09%) at 15-30cm, water holding capacity (58.60%) at 0-15cm and (58.13%) at 15-30, pH (7.75) at 0-15cm and (7.75) at 15-30cm, EC (0.47dSm-1) at 0-15cm and (0.48 dSm-1) at 15- 30cm, soil organic Carbon (0.58%) at 0-15cm and (0.49%) at 15-30cm as regards soil available nutrients, available nitrogen (280.86 kg ha-1) at 0-15cm and (286.40) at 15-30cm, available phosphorus (16.56 kg ha-1) at 0-15cm and (17.26 kg ha-1), available potassium (178.13 kg ha- 1) at 0-15cm and (172.80 kg ha-1). The use of FYM and Rhizobium, as well as its blend with complete NPK, significantly improves the growth and overall production of Pea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Rice Varieties for Growth and Yield Performance in Aerobic Cultivation

M. Karthikraja, P. Sudhakar, S. Ramesh, B. Sunil Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 532-538
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031185

A field experiment was carried out to identify the best suitable rice variety for aerobic cultivation in the Cauvery delta region. Ten ruling varieties were sown for two consecutive Kharif seasons, with regular nutrient and weed management practices under aerobic condition. Growth parameters viz.,plant height, leaf area index, root length and dry root weight were studied. Similarly yield parameters viz., panicles m-2, Dry matter production at flowering and grain yield were studied.  The study revealed that the rice variety ANNA 4, proved to be the best in terms of production (ie) 3.9 tonnesha-1 in the first season and 3.8 tonnesha-1 in the second season respectively. Pant height at different stages viz., maximum tillering, panicle initiation, flowering and harvest was highest in ANNA 4 followed by PMK 3.Similar was the case with root length,dry root weight, panicles m-2 and dry matter production at flowering stage. Leaf area index was highest for ADT 45 followed by IR50. The above results reveal that ANNA 4 is the most suitable rice variety for aerobic cultivation in the Cauvery delta region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Mitscherlich-bray Equation to Establish Fertilizer Recommendation for Strawberry under Adtuyon Clay Loam

Gerlie S. Jambaro, Louell M. Ozarraga, Edgel O. Escomen

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 539-546
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031186

The nutrient requirement of strawberry plants is high making them very responsive to fertilization. This study utilized the Mitscherlich-Bray equation to determine the theoretical maximum yield as the basis of comparison to the actual yield. The economics of fertilizer application was also considered in the determination of the fertilizer recommendation. The theoretical maximum yield of the study is 12.29 t/ha-1. Strawberry is found responsive to nitrogen and potassium fertilization. The application of 225-225-360 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5, and K2O, respectively could achieve 95% of the theoretical maximum yield, however, it had a much higher amount spent on fertilization per kg of fruit yield compared to the current Hafza’s recommendation. The fertilizer recommendation of 150-150-240 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5, and K2O, respectively still the best option under Adtuyon clay loam for both economic and horticultural benefits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Alternatives to Landraces of Kale (Brassica oleracea Group Acephala) for Off-season Cultivation and Seed-to-seed Production in Kashmir Valley

Geetika Malik, Alima Shabir, Rafiq Ahmad Shah, Saima Farooq, Asma Jabeen, J. I. Mir, O. C. Sharma

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 547-557
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031187

Aim: To characterize kale (Brassica oleracea group Acephala) germplasm well adapted for July to December cropping season in Kashmir valley for suitability for year round cultivation with respect to leaf yield (t/ha).

Study Design: Random Complete Block Design with two replications.

Place and duration of study: The study was done in Vegetable Experimental Field of ICAR-Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India from 2017-18 to 2018-19.

Methodology: The germplasm comprising breeding lines and landraces as checks was sown and then transplanted at different times of the year to evaluate for leaf yield potential at edible maturity stage. The final yield for each genotype was calculated by summing up all pickings. Critical differences among genotypes for total leaf yield were calculated from ANOVA using OPSTAT online tool for one factor analysis.

Results: Considering the average performance of two years in terms of leaf yield in tone per hectare, NW-Saag-1 (24.77, 25.08 and 25.01), CITH-KC-16 (28.79, 26.74 and 11.20) and CITH-KC-18 (24.25, 24.14 and 11.91) were found to yield significantly better than local checks Khanyari (7.77, 8.47 and 21.31) and GM Dari (10.36, 15.98 and 9.65) when transplanted in May, June and July, respectively. Months of April, May, June, July and August were most conducive for normal nursery production followed by May to September transplanting to get economical yields. January sowing of selected genotypes in polyhouse along with added protection from polysheet resulted in vigorous and healthy seedlings. Their transplanting in the second fortnight of March resulted only in short vegetative phase of the crop followed by bolting and seed production. However, this approach came out as an opportunity to produce seed in 7 months (January to July) compared to 1 year normally taken in farmer adopted seed production method.

Conclusion: NW-Saag-1, CITH-KC-16 and CITH-KC-18 lines yielded significantly higher than local landrace kales for offseason cultivation and seed-to-seed technique of seed production is an economic and short method of kale seed production in Kashmir valley.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Micronutrients Application under Different Fertilizer Prescription Methods on Growth and Yield of BT Cotton

G. S. Yogesh, S. S. Prakash, M. N. Thimmegowda

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 558-564
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031188

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of the application of micronutrients under different fertilizer prescription methods on growth and yield of Bt cotton at KVK farm, Chamarajanagara district, Southern Dry Zone of Karnataka (Zone 6). The experiment was laid out in randomised complete block design with thirteen treatments and three replications during Kharif 2016 and Kharif 2017.  The micronutrients were given as soil application and foliar spray under UAS (B) and SSNM dose of NPK fertilizers prescription.  The soil was slightly alkaline in reaction (pH: 7.95), low in zinc (0.32 mg kg-1) and boron (0.18 mg kg-1). The results indicated significantly higher plant height and more number of sympodial branches with UAS (B) Package, UAS (B) + Micronutrients, SSNM and SSNM + Micronutrients. However, significantly higher seed cotton yield (2329 kg ha-1) was recorded with NPK as per SSNM + MNM foliar application at 80 and 100 DAS followed by NPK as per UAS (B) package + MNM foliar application at 80 and100 DAS (2215 kg ha-1) and NPK as per SSNM + MNM soil application (2012 kg ha-1) treatments as compared to control. The supplementation of micronutrients with optimized major nutrient applications can bring about an overall augmentation in crop performance both in terms of growth and yield attributes, thereby resulting in a significant higher yield. Application of micronutrients through foliar spray has a significant and positive effect on the growth and yield in Bt cotton under black soils of Chamarajanagara district.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Genetic Variability and Divergence in Mustard (Brassica Juncea L.).

S. Naveen Kumar Reddy, Shiv Prakash Shrivastav

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 565-574
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031189

The purpose of the research is to study Genetic Variability, Divergence and correlation studies on 20 genotypes of mustard The phenotypic coefficient of variation was greater than genotypic coefficient of variation for all the traits. The high magnitude of both coefficients was recorded in case of number of primary number, secondary, number of siliquae per plant, seed yield per plant and harvesting index. High heritability with high genetic advance was recorded for number of primary branches, number of secondary branches, length of main raceme, number of siliquae in main raceme, number of siliqua per plant, number of seeds per siliquae, biological yield, 1000 seed weight, seed yield per plant and harvesting index. In the present findings the significant phenotypic correlation of seed yield per plant were found positive for the characters Days to 50% flowering, plant height, number of primary branches, number of secondary branches, length of main raceme, number of siliqua per plant, length of siliqua, number of seeds per siliqua, harvesting index and seed yield per plant showed positive significant correlation with seed yield per plant. The path coefficient analysis of different characters revealed that highest positive direct effect on seed yield per plant per plant was exerted by harvest index per plant followed by biological yield and negative direct effect on seed yield / plant was exhibited by number of siliqua per plant followed by length of siliqua, days to 50% flowering, number of secondary and number of primary branches. Diversity among clusters varied from 11.87 to 33.28.The highest intra-cluster distance was recorded in cluster II The genotypes falling in these clusters could be utilized for hybridization programme in Indian mustard.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Early Maturing Sugarcane Clones for Yield, Quality and Its Contributing Traits in East Coast Zone of Tamil Nadu

S. Ganapathy, R. S. Purushothaman

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 575-581
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031190

The field experiments were conducted at Sugarcane Research Station (TNAU), Cuddalore, Tamil Nadu and consist of four trials viz., Initial Varietal Trial (IVT), Advanced Varietal Trial - I plant (AVT- I plant), AVT- II plant and AVT-Ratoon. Initial varietal trial consists of eight test clones and three standards; in AVT I plant consist of five test clones and three standards, in AVT II plant and Ratoon, four entries and three standards. Observations were recorded for germination per cent (%), number of tillers (x1000/ha), number of millable cane (x1000/ha), stalk length (cm), stalk diameter (cm), single cane weight(kg) cane yield (t/ha), sucrose(%), CCS(%) and CCS yield (t/ha). The results revealed that, in Initial Varietal Trail, the clone CoC 13337 recorded higher CCS yield (17.92t/ha) followed by the clone CoC 13336 (17.25 t/ha). The Cane yield was maximum in the clone CoC 13337 (139.81 t/ha) followed by the clone CoC 13336 (134.26 t/ha). The sucrose per cent was maximum in the clone CoC 13337 (17.61%) followed by the clone CoC 13336 (17.57%). In AVT- I plant, the clone CoA 12322 recorded the higher cane yield (126.70 t/ha) followed by the clone CoA 12321 (123.23 t/ha) and CoA12323 (122.13 t/ha). The CCS yield was maximum in the clone CoA 12322 (15.92 t/ha) followed by the clone CoOr 12346. The CCS % was maximum in CoOr 12346 (12.75) followed by the standard CoC 01061. The clone CoOr 12346 recorded higher sucrose (17.87%) followed by standard CoC 01061 (17.74%). In AVT–II plant, clone CoC 11336 registered the higher cane yield (139.25t/ha) followed by the CoC 10336 (123.34 t/ha). The CCS yield was maximum in CoC 11336 (17.83 t/ha) followed by CoC 10336 (15.39 t/ha). The sucrose content was maximum in the clone CoC 11336 (17.62%) followed by CoC 01061 (17.48%). In AVT ratoon crop, among the test clones, clone CoC 11336 registered the higher cane yield (134.43t/ha) followed by the clone CoC 10336. The CCS yield was maximum in CoC 11336 (17.27t/ha) followed by CoA 11323. Hence, these promising clones in different trial could be advanced for further breeding programme for release as new sugarcane variety.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening Root Traits of Rice Landraces Seedlings (Oryza sativa L.) Under Induced Drought Stress using Hydroponic System

S. Jeeva Priya, S. Vincent, A. John Joel, N. Sritharan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 582-591
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031191

Drought is one of the most abiotic stress factor that limit the rice production worldwide. Drought stress induces the osmotic stress to plants. This study was conducted under hydroponics system with the three rice landraces 337 – IC116006, 101 – IC464685 and 224 – IC463809 along with drought tolerant check variety Anna (R) 4 under drought stress during seedling stage. The treatments were applied at 20 days old seedlings by imposing stress with PEG 6000 (-7 bar) along with control. The root traits viz., root length, root fresh weight, root dry weight, root volume, root tissue density and lateral root numbers were measured ten days after stress. In this study, the landrace 337 – IC116006 was observed as a tolerant, 101- IC464685 was observed as a moderately tolerant whereas landrace 224- IC463809 was observed as a susceptible. The root traits are the indicators which could contribute for the vigour and growth of the rice landraces at their later stage. The positive adaptive drought tolerance of rice landraces during seedling stage can be utilized as a trait in the breeding programs development for the drought tolerant cultivar.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Instability in Area, Production and Productivity of Banana in Tamil Nadu

R. Sathiya, M. Naveenkumar, S. Senthilnathan, S. Grunathan, M. Nirmala Devi, V. Banumathy

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 592-598
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031193

The study shows that, analysis of trend, growth and stability of banana in decade’s periods of India and Tamil Nadu. Since, the study attempt to analyse and used the instability index Viz., Cuddy-Della Valle Index and Coppock Index. Whereas analyse trend and decomposition used the secondary data collected from various sources. The past decades area and production of banana was significant but the last 5 years it was decline due to the some socio economic factors (educational status, household size, fertilizer application and experience) of fruits growers and some of the climatic eradications. The area under banana in Tamil Nadu was decreased (The Compound Growth Rate was -4.06 per cent) but India was increased (one per cent) in the current year (2018-19), over the base year (2009-10). The growth rate for production and productivity were negative in Tamil Nadu and that were positive in India except productivity. The area and its interaction effect with area were found to be responsible for decrease in the production of banana in India. In Tamil Nadu area and yield were identified as major influencing factors for decrease in the production of banana. The change in production of banana is high compared to area and productivity. Hence the study recommends Government also used to formulate the policy to support fruit growers by announcing minimum support price and by providing cold storage facilities at minimum cost and subsidies for exporting fruits to other countries. It was indirectly support of the fruits growers to ensure the large scale production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Organic Polymer Coated DAP Fertilizer on Phosphorus and Nitrate Releasing Pattern in Calcareous Soils

N. S. Arunima, R. Shanmugasundaram, D. Selvi, N. O. Gopal

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 599-607
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031194

An incubation experiment was carried out with DAP coated with chitosan and sodium alginate organic polymers. Treatments comprises of T1: Chitosan coated 75% DAP, T2: Chitosan coated 100% DAP, T3: Sodium alginate coated 75% DAP, T4: Sodium alginate coated 100% DAP, T5: 100% RDF (SSP), and T6: 100% RDF( DAP) which were replicated four times in completely randomized block design. Results revealed that 100% chitosan coated DAP (T2) was found to be superior than all the remaining treatments which was followed by 100% sodium alginate coated DAP (T4). Uncoated DAP and SSP high leachate P in the early stage of incubation study and there after P content was minimal in leachate. It was concluded that coated DAP had less release of P at the start of study and thereafter steady state because of the dissolution of P through the coated membrane. Similar trend was observed in nitrate releasing pattern.

Open Access Original Research Article

Standardization of Amla Candy (Emblica officinalis L.) Cv. Kanchan

Sacreacy Sohshangrit, V. M. Prasad, Cherish Sheeba Nura

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 608-614
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031195

An experiment was carried out at the Post Harvest Technology, Department of Horticulture, SHUATS, Prayagraj (Uttar Pradesh) during the year 2021 - 2022. Amla is an indigenous fruit to the Indian subcontinent. It is a fruit that is now underutilized but has huge potential in the global market. It has got great potential in processed forms, such as candy. Attempts are being made to produce products that are not only nutritionally delicious but also acceptable among consumers. The medicinal, nutritional, and organoleptic quality of amla candy can be improved by the addition of different syrups in the amla candy like rose syrup, tulsi syrup, and ginger syrup. The experiment consisted of 6 different treatments comprising the different syrups (sugar syrup, rose syrup, tulsi syrup, ginger syrup) with the addition of the standard recommended dosage of citric acid and sodium benzoate. This investigation was laid out in a completely randomized design with three replications. After preparation, the amla candy samples were evaluated for Physico-chemical alterations, and sensory evaluation was done using a 9-point hedonic scale that was tested on a panel of 7 experts. These candies were stored for about 90 days at ambient temperature.  From storage studies, it was revealed that total soluble solids and acidity increase gradually till the end of the experiment while pH and ascorbic acid are in decreasing order. On the basis of the organoleptic test concluded that the candy was prepared from cv. Kanchan and treatment with T2 (Amla + 68% Sugar syrup + 10% Spices) are found to be the best amla candy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Drought Tolerant Rice Variety Swarna Shreya in North-eastern Ghat Zone of Odisha through Frontline Demonstration

P. J. Mishra, H. K. Sahoo, L. M. Garnayak, P. K. Roul, U. S. Nagothu, B. P. Patra, A. Phonglosa, P. K. Panda, S. Mohanty

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 615-622
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031196

A continuous 3 year demonstration using drought tolerant rice variety Swarna Shreya was carried out in participatory mode in farmers’ field during Kharif season 2019, 2020 and 2021 at Lathipadsa village of Surada block of Ganjam district under north-eastern ghat zone of odisha. Major constraints of traditional rice cultivation are the low productivity in upland areas due to lack of knowledge and partial adoption of recommended package of practices by rice growing farmers. Also because of less water sometime farmers do not take any crop. Therefore, present demonstration programme has been undertaken to popularize/introduce stress tolerant rice var. Swarna Shreya in drought prone and upland areas of Ganjam district of Odisha. An average yield of 38.33 q ha-1 was recorded under demonstration plots as compared to 32.17 q ha-1 in farmers practice plots. The yield improvement due to the improved practices was 18.69 percent over farmers' practice. Average technology gap, extension gap, technology index was 6.67 q ha-1,6.17 q ha-1, 14.81 percent under three year frontline demonstration programme were recorded. The stress tolerant rice variety Swarna Shreya gave higher net return of Indian Rupee (INR) 33500, 40655 and INR 45350 ha-1 as compared to farmers practices with INR 26100, 23520 and 24650 ha- 1 during Kharif season of 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively. The benefit cost ratio (B:C ratio) of rice cultivation under improved practices were found to be 1.95, 2.13 and 2.08 as compared to 1.67, 1.60 and 1.58 under farmers practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening for Export Potential Potato Varieties in Bangladesh

Md Mazadul Islam, Md Nasir Uddin, Sauda Naznin, Md. Nurul Amin, Md. Raziul Hassan Mondol, Afroz Naznin, Md. Zannatul Ferdous, Md. Salim, Md. Rezaul Karim, Bimal Chandra Kundu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 623-634
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031197

Aims: The main aim of this study was to find out the suitable variety having the export potentiality.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block (RCB) design with the two replications in each location.

Place of the Study: The study was conducted in ten different agroecological environments across the country, namely Bogura, Jashore, Munshiganj, Gazipur, Patuakhali, Faridpur, Debiganj, Madaripur, Thakurgaon and Rangpur district of Bangladesh during November 2020 to March 2021.

Methodology: Sixty-two released potato varieties and exotic materials were used as planting materials for the experiment. Whole seed tubers of 28–40 mm were planted in the last week of November with a spacing of 60 cm between the rows and 20 cm between the plants. The crops were harvested at full maturity during March. Tuber yield was determined by adding the weights of marketable and unmarketable tubers from the net plot area and converting them to tons per hectare. After that, the tubers were graded in different grades and the dry matter of the potato was analyzed.

Results: Considering the results, the location Rangpur, Thakurgaon, Debiganj and Bogura are the most suitable place for export variety cultivation in Bangladesh. The potato variety and genotypes 13.7, BARI Alu-12, BARI Alu-61, BARI Alu-68, BARI Alu-73 and Innovator were found promising for export for their yield, tuber size and dry matter content.

Conclusion: The variety having good yield, bigger size and high dry matter could be selected for export from Bangladesh and the better-performed regions can be utilized for export quality potato production in Bangladesh.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Growth Retardant and Defoliant on Morpho-physiological Traits and Yield Improvement in Cotton

K. Dharani, V. Ravichandran, S. Anandakumar, N. Sritharan, N. Sakthivel

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 635-644
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031198

In cotton, mechanized harvesting has gained popularity in recent years due to labor-intensive process and shortage of labor. Moreover, mechanized harvesting of cotton depends on plant morphological characters like plant height, internodal length and synchronized boll maturity and opening etc. Mechanized harvesting enhancing the harvesting efficiency of cotton which is achieved by the use of some chemicals to attain good lint yield and fibre quality. With this background, the field experiment was conducted to study the impact of growth retardant and defoliant on morpho-physiological traits and yield improvement in cotton (CO 17) during 2021-2022 by following randomized block design with four treatments and five replications. The current study revealed that spraying of 0.015% mepiquat chloride (MC) at square formation and boll development stage significantly reduced the leaf area, plant height, total dry weight and boll number when compared to control. However, chlorophyll content and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were recorded higher in 0.015% mepiquat chloride (MC) applied treatments than control. Moreover, spraying of mepiquat chloride (0.015%) at square formation and boll development stage followed by spraying of 0.9% sodium chlorate (SC) at 60% boll bursting stage significantly increased the seed cotton yield compared to other treatments and recorded maximum seed cotton yield of 25.22% compared to control. Results clearly indicate that application of MC followed by SC could be a better practice for canopy management in cotton, resulting in improved efficiency of mechanical harvesting and good lint yield and fibre quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Integrated Effect of Organic and Inorganic Manuring on Crop Yield and Soil Nutrient Balance in the On-going Century-old Permanent Manurial Experiment

M. S. Sabeena, G. Sridevi, D. Jayanthi, D. Balachandar, Ga. Dheebakaran

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 645-658
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031200

Aim: The present study reports the results of continuous application of different rates of N, P and K and organic manure to a Maize-Sunflower cropping system on the changes in soil available nutrients status after harvest of 172th crop of maize.

Materials and Methods: We studied the long-term effect of organic and inorganic manuring on crop yield and soil nutrient management under Maize–Sunflower cropping system in 112 years old Permanent Manurial Experiment Field. Significant build-up in soil fertility in terms of alkaline KMnO4-N, Olsen-P, NH4OAc-K, K2Cr2O7–C and CaCl2-S as well as DTPA-Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn were assessed under eight treatments consist of Unfertilized Control, NP, NP, NPK (Chemical Fertilizer Alone), FYM (N Equivalent Basis), FYM (Every Year), Poultry Manure and NPK+FYM.

ResultS and Discussion: Recorded data from 2008 shows that continuous application as 100%NPK+FYM @12.5 t ha-1 achieved highest grain yield (hybrid maize CO 6), soil organic carbon, available nitrogen, available potassium, available sulphur and micronutrients content. Highest P recorded in poultry manure on nitrogen equivalent basis than INM irrespective of the crops. Inorganic fertilizer application alone resulted in a pH of >8.0, whereas fertilizer and manure application as well as manure application alone resulted in a pH of < 8.0 in soil. The increase in available S in INM, NPK alone might be due to single super phosphate (SSP) and FYM which contained about 12 and 0.74 % of S, respectively. Thus, considering soil-quality conservation and crop yield, 112 years of study indicated that combined application of NPK and organic manure is a better nutrient-management option in this irrigated maize sunflower cropping system.

Conclusion: These results conclude that for better crop yield and soil quality, integrated usage of organic and inorganic nutrient should be advocated in the Maize-Sunflower cropping system under Alfisol.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evolution of Liquid Multinutrient Fertilizer for Hybrid Cotton

Divya K., R. K. Kaleeswari, D. Jeyanthi, D. Amirtham, K. Sankaranarayanan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 666-671
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031202

A field experiment was conducted to assess the effect of drip fertigation and foliar nutrition of liquid multi nutrient on growth, yield and quality parameters of hybrid cotton. Liquid fertilizer was formulated using micronutrient (Zn, Fe, Mn, B, Mo, Cu), Mg and S to meet the nutrient requirement of hybrid cotton. Field experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications and seven treatments. Drip fertigation was applied with 100% recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) through water soluble fertilizer and Liquid Multinutrient (LMN). Treatment that received 100% RDF + LMN fertigation and foliar nutrition of LMN recorded the highest growth parameters (plant height, Leaf Area Index and dry matter production), yield parameters like number of sympodial branches/plant, number of bolls/plant, boll weight, seed cotton yield and quality parameters like staple length and ginning out turn per cent and in addition to that foliar nutrition of LMN containing Mg alleviated the Mg deficiency to the tune of 52% which in turn increases the above parameters. Fertigation and foliar nutrition of LMN enhanced the nutrient uptake of hybrid cotton that would economize the cost of fertilizer input.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pre-Sowing Seed Treatment of Selected Botanical Extracts and Biofertilizers on Growth, Yield and Yield Attributing Traits of Mustard (Brassica juncea.L)

Busireddy Sai Harsha Vardhan Reddy, Bineeta Michael Bara, Prashant Kumar Rai, Vaidurya Pratap Sahi, Samir Ebson Topno, Biswarup Mehera

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 672-678
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031203

The present investigation was carried out for “Pre-sowing seed treatments of selected botanicals extract and biofertilizers on growth, yield and yield attributing traits of Mustard (Brassica juncea L.)”. For this pur- pose, 13 priming treatments including control on Mustard seeds variety were used to study under filed condi- tions during rabi, 2021-22. Field experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications respectively during Rabi 2021-22. Analysis for the data in field experiment revealed significance mean sum of squares due to seed priming treatments for all the characters under study. In order to standardize method of seed priming specific to mustard crop and they were evaluated by screeming a range of duration and concentration Viz T0- Control, T1 Neem Leaf Extract 5% (6Hrs), T2 Neem Leaf Extract 10%(6Hrs), T3 Moringa Leaf Extract 5% (6Hrs), T4 Moringa Leaf Extract(10%Hrs), T5 Trichoderma viridae 0.1%(6Hrs), T6 Trichoderma viridae 0.3%(6Hrs), T7 Azosprillum 0.1%(6Hrs), T8 Azosprillum 0.3%(6Hrs), T9 Neem Leaf Extract + Moringa Leaf Extract(5% +3%) 6hrs, T10 Trichoderma viridae + Azosprillum (0.1%+0.1%), T10 Trichoderma viridae + Azosprillum (0.1%+0.1%), T11 Neem Leaf Extract + Trichoderma viridae (3% +0.1%), T12 Moringa Leaf Extract + Azosprillum(3% +0.1%)To find out Influence of different seed treatment on growth, yield and seed quality parameters of mustard showed that significant treatment Field emergence (%), Plant height (30,60,90 DAS), Days to 50% flowering, Number of branches per plant, Number of silique per plant, Number of seeds per silique, Seed yield per plant (g),Seed yield per plot (g),Biological yield (g),Harvest index. The study helps to improve the quality to improve of seed with help of seed different Leaf extracts and Biofertilizers priming treatment which are cost effective and economic, non- toxic, ecofriendly sources. Pre- sowing treatment with It is concluded from the present study that the seeds of Mustard (Variety - sonalika) were treated with T9 Neem Leaf Extract + Moringa Leaf Extract(5% +3%) 6hrs enhanced the Field emergence percentage, Plant height (cm), Number of branches per plant, Number of silique per plant, Number of seeds per silique, Seed yield per plant, Seed yield per plot, Biological yield, Harvest index followed by T12 Moringa Leaf Extract + Azosprillum(3% +0.1%) and T4 Moringa Leaf Extract(10%Hrs) as compared to control ( untreated ) seeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Sowing Environment on Growth Parameters, Yield and Yield Components of Chickpea (Cicer aretinum L.) Varities

Mandeep Kumar, Naushad Khan, Ravindra Sachan, Abhishek Tiwari

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 679-687
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031204

A field experiment was conducted during Rabi season of 2019-20 in sandy loam    soil of C.S.A. University of Agriculture and Technology, Nawabganj, Kanpur (U.P.).The experiment consisted nine treatments combinations comprised of three sowing date/ sowing temperature viz., sowing on November 10 with temperature 220C, November 20 with temperature 170C and November 30 with temperature 160C and three variety viz, KWR-108, KPG-59 and KGD-1168. Results revealed that sowing temperature 220C which occurred on November 10 in combination with variety KGD-1168 produced significantly higher growth parameters such as plant population, plant height, number of branches per plant, dry matter accumulation and crop growth rate. It is also evident from data that variety KDG-1168 sown on November 10 has been associated with highest no. of pods plant-1, no. of seeds plant-1, no. of seeds pod-1, test weight, seed yield plant-1, seed yield (q ha-1) because fulfilment of optimum thermal requirement for various plant processes. High temperature during-reproductive stage adversely affected the number of pods plant,-1 number of seed pod-1 in late sowing (November 30) which ultimately resulted in the lowest seed yield. It can be elaborated from the results that variety KGD-1168 produces higher yield and benefit in the central plain zone of Uttar Pradesh.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Plant Growth Regulators on Growth, Yield and Quality of Okra cv. Kashi Kranti

Sangeeta Shree, Reena Kumari, Vijay Kumar Singh, Sunil Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 688-692
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031205

The present work was conducted to evaluate the response of okra cv. Kashi Kranti to plant growth regulators and micronutrients at the vegetable seed production area, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur, Bihar, India during Kharif season. The experiment was laid out in RBD (Factorial) and replicated thrice. The experiment was framed with two levels of PGRs, GA3 (100 ppm,150 ppm) and NAA(100 ppm and 150 ppm), sprayed twice, first at twenty days after sowing and second at forty days after sowing. The maximum number of leaves (18.13), number of branches (3.48), plant height (104.17 cm), number of fruit per plant (23.39), fruit fresh weight (17.95g) and fruit yield (130.88q/ha), 1000 seed weight (78.49g) chlorophyll-a (1.84), chlorophyll-b( 0.81), zinc content (30.81 ppm), boron (22.55 ppm), copper (18.24 ppm) and germination (85.48%) was observed on application of GA3-100ppm, which was found to be significantly superior in most of the cases. Maximum net return highest benefit cost ratio (2.67) was also obtained on application of GA3100 ppm.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Newer Insecticide Molecules for the Management of Emerging Pests of Rice in the Cauvery Delta Zone of Tamil Nadu, India

P. Anandhi, V. Ambethgar, S. Elamathi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 659-665
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031201

Seven treatments including 5 insecticides, Azadirachtin and untreated control were evaluated in field conditions against emerging pests of Rice viz., Rice hispa, Dicladispa armigera, (Oliver), (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera), Whorl maggot, Hydrellia sasakii Yuasa and Isitani (Diptera: Ephydridae) and Rice black bug, Scotinophara lurida (Burmeister),(Pentatomidae: Hemiptera) during 2019 and 2020 at Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute, Aduthurai. All the tested newer insecticide molecules were effective against the above-mentioned emerging pests of Rice. Two sprays of Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC @ 150ml/ha at 35 and 75 days after transplanting (DAT) has reduced the highest reduction of hispa, whorl maggot and black bug (91.80, 92.25, 84.51 percent reduction over control) followed by Clothianidin 50 WDG @ 40g/ha (88.46, 89.60 and 83.39 percent reduction over control). Higher yield was recorded from Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC (6075 kg/ha) treated plots followed by Clothianidin 50 WDG @ 40g/ha (5950 kg/ha). Cost-benefit analysis showed that Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC @ 150ml/ha spray was the most viable treatment by recording the highest cost-benefit ratio of 1: 3.17. Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC @ 150ml/ha recorded more number of spiders and coccinellids (1.51 and 1.75 no./plant) followed by Carbosulfan 25% EC @ 1000ml/ ha (1.40 and 1.75 no./plant) which was on par with control (2.98 and 2.88 no./plant).

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Genetic Parameters for Important Agronomic Traits in Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) Germplasm in Two Agro-ecological Regions of Nigeria

J. U. Agbim, S. O. Afuape, J. I. Ulasi, E. R. Keyagha

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 693-708
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031206

For an effective and efficient crop breeding program, collection of good genotypes that provides good agronomic background for the new variety to be developed must be available, and such genotypes must contain significant genetic variability for effective crop development. In order to determine the agronomic worth of a collection of sweetpotato genotypes so as to identify the superior ones under different agro-ecologies, and also to determine the extent of variability that exists among the genotypes, fifty-two genotypes were evaluated at Umudike (rainforest belt) and forty-eight at Otobi (humid guinea savannah) during the raining season using recommended protocols. While agronomic data were taken at 4 months after planting (MAP), sweetpotato virus disease (SPVD) incidence and severity scores were taken at 2 MAP. Results showed that significant (p<0.001) variation exists among the genotypes for all the traits except weight of unmarketable roots in both locations. Genotype PYT/12/074 had the highest root yield of 29.33 t/ha at the rainforest belt followed by Solo-2 and PYT/12/105 with yield levels of 27.67 and 26.33 t/ha, respectively. At Otobi, same PYT/12/074 had the highest root yield of 27.74 t/ha followed by Kwara and PYT/12/105 with yield levels of 27.67 and 26.33 t/ha, respectively. The principal component analysis identified marketable root weight, number of marketable roots, SPVD incidence and severity as the most important traits that influenced the observed variation among the genotypes. The biplot analysis further identified most of the orange-fleshed genotypes as highly susceptible to SPVD. Genetic studies of the traits showed that while broad-sense heritability estimates ranged from moderate to high for the important agronomic and SPVD traits, the high GCV and genetic advance observed portends a high genetic gain and good breeding progress in the breeding program using the genotypes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Growth and Yield of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.)

Gundala Jansi Lakshmi, Devi Singh, Gara Raja

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 709-713
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031207

This investigation was undertaken to study “the effect of plant growth regulators on growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) during Kharif season of 2021 at the Crop Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj (U.P), India. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with 10 treatments and each replicated thrice. The treatments consisted of plant growth regulators GA3 at 10, 20 and 30 ppm, NAA at 10, 20 and 30 ppm and 2,4-D at 2,3, and 4ppm and a control plot. The results showed that among all the treatments, foliar application of GA3 (30 ppm) had positive impact on growth, yield and quality parameters i.e., plant height (81.68 cm), number of clusters per plant (36.66), days to 50% flowering (63.11 days), flowers per plant (72.22), fruits per plant (55.33), fruit yield per plant (3.90 kg), fruit yield per hectare (58.5 t), total soluble solids (4.20 Brix) and acidity (0.41%) were obtained. Foliar application of GA3 (30 ppm) was found to be productive as it recorded major growth and yield attributes as compared to other treatments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variability and Character Association Study for Yield and Attributing Traits in Lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus.) under Terai Agro-climatic Conditions of West Bengal

Anjan Roy, Arup Sarkar, Suvendu Kumar Roy, Manoj Kanti Debnath

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 714-721
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031211

Aims: To evaluate the genotypes for different yields and yield attributing morphological traits by estimation of GCV, PCV, heritability (h2) in a broad sense and genetic advance as percent of the mean. To study the character association between yield and yield attributes and further partitioning into their direct and indirect effect on yield for consideration of appropriate traits to facilitate the selection of desirable genotypes.

Place and duration of Study: Lentil genotypes were evaluated in the instructional farm of Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar, West Bengal during the rabi season of 2019-2020 and 2020-2021.

Methodology: Forty lentil genotypes including two checks viz., WBL77 and IPL220 were evaluated in alpha lattice design with three replications following the standard cultural practices. The observations were recorded as the average of the same in five randomly sampled plants in each plot for all the eleven attributes studied. Statistical analysis was carried out using the R v. 4.1.1 software.

Results: ANOVA revealed significant variation for all the characters among the genotypes and also for genotype vs. year interaction. Characters such as plant height (96.20%1, 26.32%2), secondary branches plant-1 (91.79%1, 28.59%2), number of pods plant-1 (97.98%1, 89.67%2), pod weight plant-1(g) (96.82%1, 90.15%2), 100 seed weight (g) (98.13%1, 40.92%2), yield plant-1(g) (96.68%1, 91.20%2)and harvest index (%) (94.28%1, 33.06%2) showed high heritability (1) coupled with high genetic advance as percentage of mean(2). Genotypic correlation study revealed that number of pods plant-1 (0.846), primary branches plant-1 (0.905), secondary branches plant-1 (0.416), pod weight plant-1(0.992) and harvest index (0.432) were significantly and positively correlated with yield plant-1. Path coefficient studies revealed that characters like pod weight plant-1(0.699), primary branches plant-1 (0.241), harvest index (0.083), number of pods plant-1 (0.070), 100 seed weight (0.063) and days to 90% maturity (0.047) had positive direct effect on yield.

Conclusion: The present study revealed significant variability among the genotypes as far as the characters taken under study were concerned. Further, the characters showing positive  and significant correlation could be considered favorably for a further selection of desirable genotypes.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Assessment of Constraints Faced by Cabbage Growers in the East Khasi Hills District of Meghalaya: India

Karuna Sri, Anju Choudhury, Anjoo Yumnam, Rishikantha Singh, Niveditha Dek

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 722-729
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031213

Aims: The study aimed to analyze the common, technical, economical, and marketing constraints faced by the cabbage farmers in East Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya (2019-2020).

Study Design: Purposive random sampling was employed in this study.  One District and two blocks were selected purposively on the basis of their highest contribution to the area and production of cabbage further villages and respondents were selected randomly.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the Mawrykneng and Mawkynrew blocks of East Khasi Hills District of Meghalaya. Five villages namely Umphyrnoi, Sohryngkhem, Rapleng, Tynroit and Tangsning were selected and 80 cabbage growers were selected for the study. The data was collected for the period of 2019-to 2020.

Methodology: The Garette ranking technique was worked out to analyze the constraints.

Results: The major economical constraints observed were high initial investment with the garette score of (77.95), followed by costly plant material (76.39).  The major marketing constraints were high fluctuations in the market prices (63.22), and a lack of cooperative market (55.11). The top technical constraints were control of pests and diseases (53.35), water management (52.63), and the common constraints were lack of knowledge on the recommended package of practices (59.43) and labor problems (52.08).

Concluding remarks: Adequate need-based training programs may enhance the production of cabbage and thereby increases the farm income. Proper marketing channels and infrastructural development will help the growers fetch remunerative price for their produce.

Open Access Original Research Article

Invasiveness of Alternanthera bettzickiana – Is Allelopathy a Factor?

Teresa Alex, Meera V. Menon

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 730-738
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031214

Aims: The aim of the experiment was to investigate the allelopathic potential of Alternanthera bettzickiana (Regel) Voss.

Study Design: Experiment on effect of aqueous extract, incorporation and mulching of A. bettzickiana on crop seedling growth was carried out in completely randomized design with five treatments replicated five times. Varying concentrations and time of application of weed extract were also tried in an experiment laid out in factorial completely randomized design with a total of twenty treatment interactions replicated thrice.

Place and Duration of Study: Experiments were carried out at Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur, during 2021- 2022.

Methodology: Rice and cowpea were used as test crops in all the experiments. A laboratory study was carried out with test crops sown in petri plates to assess the effect of aqueous extract of the weed at 0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% concentration on germination of the crops. Effect of mulching and incorporation of A. bettzickiana at the rate of 0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 tonnes per hectare on crop growth was studied as pot culture experiments. To assess the influence of time of application of weed extract on seedling growth, extracts at various concentrations of 0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% were applied at 0, 6, 15 and 21 days after sowing of test crops in trays.

Results: Only the treatment of 8% aqueous extract of weed caused a significant reduction in seedling vigour of cowpea, while rice was found to be unaffected. Incorporation and mulching of A. bettzickiana showed no significant effect on germination and growth of both the test crops. Time of application of weed extract at various concentrations also had no significant effect on seedling growth of both rice and cowpea

Conclusion: Alternanthera bettzickiana possessed no strong allelopathic potential as exhibited by other species of the genera like A. philoxeroides, A. sessilis etc.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical Properties of Soil as Influenced by Combined Application of Organic and Inorganic Sources to Fodder Oat and Succeeding Residual Fodder Maize

Harsita Nayak, J. S. Bohra, Shiv Poojan Yadav, Tejbal Singh, Priyanka Saha

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 739-747
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031215

An experimental trial was carried out during 2018-19 and 2019-20 at Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, to assess the direct and residual effect of varying levels of fertility and organic sources on different soil chemical properties. Application of fertility levels had non-significant direct and residual effects on soil health in both the years, though maximum values were obtained with 100% RDF. After fodder oat harvest, the maximum values of available NPK in the soil were observed using FYM over poultry manure and vermicompost. Application of 50 kg nitrogen ha-1 through organic sources recorded distinctly higher soil available N, P, and K after the harvest of fodder oat. However, the residual effect of nitrogen levels and organic sources failed to touch the significant level of soil health parameters after harvesting fodder maize.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variation, Correlation and Metroglyph Analysis in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) for Grain Yield Characters

D. Venkata Sravani, Vinay Tiwari, G. Roopa Lavanya

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 748-758
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031216

Rice is the only cereal crop cooked and consumed mainly as whole grains, and quality considerations are more important. Rice has been reported to possess diverse therapeutic properties capable of treating diabetics to neurotic ailments as evidenced by ancient literatures apart from its nutritional importance as a major source of calories for a majority of the world population. The present investigation was taken up to study the total of 20 lines of rice including a check variety were evaluated in randomized block design for genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance by using 13 quantitative traits by metroglyph and index score method. Analysis of variance for various quantitative characters revealed that the mean sum of squares due to genotypes showed high significant difference for all characters under study at 1% level and 5% level of significance. Scattered diagram revealed that 20 genotypes were grouped in to 5 complexes and maximum number of genotypes 11 was found in complex-1. High index score observed was 33 for a genotype SHIVA-555.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Nitrogen on Growth Indices of Different Wheat Varieties in Late Sown Condition

Kuldeep Singh, Anil Kumar Singh, Ram Pratap Singh, Vishal Singh, Ankit Kumar, Divya Singh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 759-763
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031218

Growth indices changes from sowing to harvesting of the crop were monitored under the influence of four varieties (PBW- 373, HD- 2285, K-7903, HUW-234) and four Nitrogen levels (0 kg ha-1 (Control), 120 kg ha-1,150 kg ha-1 and 180 kg ha-1) during rabi season of 2019-20 and 2020-21. Analysis of the two years average data indicated that PBW-373 along with 150 kg N ha-1 resulted in the highest significant values of Crop Growth Rate (CGR) and Net Assimilation Rate (NAR) up to 60 and 90 DAS respectively after which it declines whereas Relative Growth Rate (RGR) show a declining trend from sowing till harvesting. Net Assimilation Rate (NAR) was found to be unaffected by the varieties but was significantly affected by different levels of nitrogen being highest with 150 kg N ha-1. However, it was found to declines from sowing to harvesting. Leaf area duration (LAD) was also found to increases from sowing till harvest being highest with 150 kg N ha‑1. No interaction effect was found among different treatments. The overall findings concluded that variety PBW-373 along with 150 kg N ha-1 could be more beneficial in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of New Sources of Resistance to Rice Gall Midge Biotype 3 (GMB 3) Prevailing in Jagtial, Telangana, India

Anil Kumar, J. Suresh, B. Srinivas, C. Narendra Reddy, S. Omprakash

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 764-769
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031219

Aim: To screen different rice entries against rice gall midge, (Orseolia oryzae) biotype 3 under field conditions.

Place and Duration of Study: A total of 84 rice germplasm lines along with resistant and susceptible checks were evaluated against rice the gall midge, (Orseolia oryzae) biotype 3. These studies were conducted during Kharif season (2021) under field conditions at the Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Jagtial.

Methodology: Data on the total number of plants and plants with silver shoots including the number of silver shoots per plant were also recorded on 30 and 50 days after transplantation. Gall midge incidence as silver shoot scored according to the standard evaluation system, International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) for gall midge [1].

Results: Six entries viz., KAKAI, SINNA SIVAPPU, PTB-12, WGL-1145, WGL-1147 and WGL-1127 had shown high resistant (score 0) to gall midge. Four entries viz., IR72476-B-P-9-3-1-1, RP-5332-54-11-8-2-13, WGL-1143 and SUDD HONDARAWALA were found resistant (score 1) against gall midge.

Conclusion: The entries KAKAI, SINNA SIVAPPU, PTB-12, WGL-1145, WGL-1147 and WGL-1127 exhibited the high resistance against gall midge. Hence, they can be developed as varieties or can be used in breeding programme as a source of gall midge resistance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seed Quality Parameters as Influenced by Plant Growth Regulators and Fresh Fruit Harvesting in Okra

Ritu Kumari, Sangeeta Shree, Vijay Kumar Singh, Arun Kumar, Sanjay Sahay, Pushpam Patel

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 770-780
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031220

The research work was conducted to find out the most suitable level of plant growth regulator (PGR) and stage of plant for spray as well as fresh fruit pickings to increase the seed yield of okra. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design (factorial) with three replications to at the Vegetable seed production area BAU, Sabour, Bhagalpur. Present investigation was framed with Sixty (60) treatments consisting of 10 PGR’s level, P0 (distilled water), GA3 (100 ppm, 150 ppm and 200 ppm), NAA (100 ppm, 150 ppm and 200 ppm), IAA (30 ppm, 60 ppm and 90 ppm), 2 Stage of plant for spraying of PGRs, S1 (4 leaf stage), S2 (4 leaf stage + Flower initiation) and 3 pickings of fruits, H1 (3 Pickings of fresh fruits + rest fruits left for seed production), H2 (6 Pickings of fresh fruits + rest fruits left for seed production), H3 (No pickings of fresh fruits + all fruits left for seed production. It was observed that the different levels of treatments affected the seed quality attributes of the crops. Among the treatments, P2S1H1 treatment was recorded maximum Germination % (86.36), Seedling length (31.04 cm), Vigour index-I (2787.73), Vigour index-II (5.27) and seed viability test (88.00). Thus, P2S1H1 was superior among all treatments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Potential of Smart Fertilizers on Growth and Nutrient Availability of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Shikhar Verma, N. S. Rana, . Vivek, Mausmi Rastogi, Bal Veer Singh, Praveen Kumar Yadav, Sweekruta Mohapatra

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 781-788
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031221

A field experiment was conducted at crop research centre of SVPUA&T, Meerut (U.P.) India during 2020-21. Novel nutrient sources and their modes of applications with 12 treatments consisting of Control, NPK-(150:60:40 q ha-1), 100 % NPK + Nano Zn spray, 100 % NPK + Bio-stimulant spray, 75 % NPK + NPK Consortia, 75 % NPK + NPK spray, 75 % NPK + NPK Consortia + Nano N spray, 75 % NPK + NPK Consortia + NPK spray, 75 % NPK + NPK Consortia + NPK spray +Bio-stimulant spray, 75 % NPK + NPK Consortia + NPK spray + Bio-stimulant spray + Nano Zn spray, 75 % NPK + NPK Consortia + Nano Zn spray, 75 % NPK + NPK Consortia + Nano N spray + Nano Zn spray were attempted on wheat variety HD 2967 in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The application of 75 % NPK + NPK Consortia + NPK spray + Bio-stimulant spray + Nano Zn spray was found at par with 100 % NPK nano Zn / Bio-stimulant and significant over recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) with a better growth attribute and yield ie. plant population (307.8 no. m-2), plant height (110.6 cm), number of tillers m-1 row length (68.9), dry matter accumulation (294.0 g m-1) and grain yield (55.9 q ha-1 ) with a better availability of nutrients in soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Boron Levels and Row Spacing on Growth and Yield of Mustard (Brassica juncea L.)

Pavan Kumar Mosam, C. Umesha

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 789-794
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031222

A field experiment was conducted during Rabi 2021 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P) to evaluate the effect of boron levels and row spacing on growth and yield of mustard (Brassica juncea L.). The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.2). The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with nine treatments with three replications. The treatments comprising of different levels of boron and row spacing whose effect was observed in mustard. The results obtained that the application of boron @3 kg/ha plus row spacing of 30cm recorded significantly maximum plant height (192.53 cm), plant dry weight (36.95 g/plant), number of siliquea/plant (314.47), test weight (5.14g), number of seeds/siliquea (15.33), stover yield (4.61 t/ha), seed yield (2.48 t/ha). Therefore, treatment with application of boron @3 kg/ha long with row spacing of 30cm was more productive and can be recommended to farmers after further trails.

Open Access Original Research Article

Long Term Impact of Fertilization and Intensive Cropping on Maize Yield and Soil Nutrient Availability under Sandy Clay Loam Soil (Inceptisol)

G. Manimaran, D. Jayanthi, P. Janaki, D. Amirtham, B. Gokila

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 795-801
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031223

A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of crop productivity and soil nutrient availability under continuous cropping and fertilization. A single nutrient application or omission of nutrient or mineral fertilizer alone can deteriorate the soil nutrient availability and yield in long run. The result revealed that soil pH and EC have not changed substantially even after the repeated application of fertilizers over five decades. The use of balanced fertilizers either alone or integrated with organic manure (FYM) has significantly increased the grain and straw yield of maize. The yield increment of maize was observed 13.9 percent higher than 100% NPK and 18.3 percent higher than without the addition of S (S free). Balanced fertilization can improve the soil nutrients (N, P, K & S) and soil organic carbon instead addition of FYM @ 10 t ha-1 could increase the SOC and soil nutrients in long run in a sustainable manner. Concerning nitrogen, single nutrient (N alone) plots received low available nutrients and yield also it’s deteriorated the soil nutrients over long period. A build-up of available soil P and S was observed due to its continuous addition through fertilizer but soil K has reduced because of intensive cropping and high-yielding cultivars. Hence, for sustainable  roduction, application of a recommended dose of mineral fertilization (100% NPK) along with FYM @ 10 t ha-1 may be used to achieve a higher yield, stable nutrient balance and soil quality over decades.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on Plant Growth and Pod Yield of Cluster Bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) cv. MDU 1

Tejaswini Anugonda, Vipin M. Prasad, Cherish Sheeba Nura

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 810-816
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031225

An experiment was carried out in departmental field of Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj during April to July 2021 on Cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) cv. MDU 1 to find out the best suitable combination of organic and inorganic fertilizers for better vegetative growth and yield of cluster bean. The experiment include organic manures like FYM, Poultry Manure, Vermicompost, Goat Manure which were combined in different percentages with reduced dosage of inorganic fertilizers i.e RDF. Twelve treatment combinations were made and replicated thrice in Randomized Block Design. Application of fertilizers and manures was done as per the treatment allocation. The experimental results revealed that treatment T3-75%RDF 18.75:37.5:37.5kg NPK +25%vermicompost 1.25t (5.66) took the minimum number of days to germinate, while vegetative parameters like plant height were recorded maximum in treatment T4-75% RDF 18.75:37.5:37.5 kg NPK+25% Poultry manure 1.25t during the first 30 DAS, later at 60 and 90 DAS treatment T10-50%RDF 12.5:25:25kg NPK +25%FYM 2.5t+25%poultry manure 1.25t was recorded with maximum height (67.04 and 119.09 cm) and maximum no of branches (22.05), first flower bud formation was observed in treatment T3 (33.44 DAS), and yield parameters such as pod yield per plant (265.95 g), total Pod yield (17.72 t/ha), were also recorded significantly maximum in treatment T10.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Organic Manure, Inorganic Fertilizers and Biofertilizers on Nutrient Content of Maize (Zea mays L.) and Their Residual Effect on Succeeding Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Crop

Pushpendra Kumar, S. D. Dubey, Ravindra Sachan, Chhote Lal Rawat, Vivek Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 817-827
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031227

An experiment was conducted at Students’ Instructional Farm, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur. The aim of the study to evaluate the different sources of nutrient on nutrient content of maize (Zea mays L.) and their residual effect on succeeding wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop. On the basis of results emanated from present investigation it could be concluded that application of 100%RDN+25% N-VC+S+Zn+Az.+PSB significantly recorded maximum nutrient content in maize viz. N (1.58%), P (0.46%), K (0.56%) and S (0.25%) and Zn (24.20 mg kg-1) content in grain during first year and during second year nutrient content in maize grain is N (1.61%), P (0.50%), K (0.60%) and  S (0.29%) and Zn (24.26 mg kg-1)similarly maximum nutrient content in maize stover viz. N (0.71%), P (0.29%), K (1.28%) and S (0.26%) and Zn (41.50 mg kg-1) during first year and during second year nutrient content in maize stover is N (0.74%), P (0.32%), K (1.31%) and  S (0.30%) and Zn (41.55 mg kg-1). Similar, trend was also repeated during both of the years for succeeding wheat crop in terms of nutrient content in grain and straw of wheat. Application of 100%RDN+25% N-VC+S+Zn+Az.+PSB significantly recorded maximum nutrient content in wheat grain viz. N (1.94%), P (0.40%), K (0.64%) , S (0.30%) and Zn (42.21 mg kg-1) during first year and during second year nutrient content in wheat grain is N (1.98%), P (0.44%), K (0.68%), S (0.34%) and Zn (42.26 mg kg-1) similarly maximum nutrient content in wheat straw viz. N (0.63%), P (0.22%), K (1.38%), S (0.29%) and Zn (14.82 mg kg-1) during first year and during second year nutrient content in wheat straw is N (0.67%), P (0.25%), K (1.42%) and  S (0.33%) and Zn (14.87 mg kg-1).

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Gibberellic Acid and Naphthalene Acetic Acid on Growth and Yield of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in Prayagraj Agro Climatic Conditions

Paluru Thejaswi, . Deepanshu, Vijay Bahadur

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 802-809
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031224

The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of gibberellic acid and Naphthalene acetic acid on growth and yield of cucumber at Horticulture Research Field, Department of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj during mid March- mid June 2021. Total Nine treatments were tried and replicated three times in a Randomized Block Design. Treatments include two growth regulators having concentrations of GA3 (15, 25, 35, 45 ppm) and NAA (75, 100, 125, 150 ppm) and Control (Water spray) were spayed at two leaf stage and four-leaf stages. The application of plant growth regulators significantly effects the vegetative as well as reproductive attributes of the crop. The treatment T3 25 ppm GA3 at 2, 4 leaf stage was found most effective among all the treatments in terms of Vine length at 20, 40, 60 days after sowing (39.12, 91.02, 180.32 cm) Days to first appearance of male flowers in 50% plants (32.86 days), Number of fruits per plant (12.20), Average fruit yield per plant (1870.37 g), fruit weight (153.33g) where as Days to first appearance of female flowers in 50% plants (38.93) and Days to first harvest (50.6) was observed in 35 ppm GA3, length of the fruit (14.66 cm in 15 ppm GA3), fruit diameter (4.28 cm in 15 ppm GA3), Average yield (18.77 t/ha in 25 ppm GA3). Based on these observations spraying of GA3 25 ppm at 2, 4 leaf stages was found effective for growth and yield of cucumber compared to other concentrations of GA3, NAA and control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis of Coated Urea and Its Release Pattern

. Lalchhuanawmi, M. R. Backiyavathy, R. K. Kaleeswari, C. Sharmila Rahale

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 828-836
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031229

The main aim of this paper was to develop three different type of urea fertilizer coating with ethyl cellulose and starch-super absorbent polymer and to study their effectiveness in the release of nitrogen. The synthesis and characterization of the coated fertilizer was carried out in Department of Nanoscience and Technology, TNAU, Coimbatore-03, India. A column experiment was also set up at Radioisotope Laboratory in TNAU, Coimbatore-03, India for a period of 30 days. The column experiment consists of 5 treatments and 3 replications with a Completely Randomized Block (CRD) design with level of significance of 0.05%. The treatments consist of control, uncoated urea, Ethyl cellulose (EC), Starch-Super absorbent polymer (SAP) and EC+Strach-SAP coating. Double coated urea (EC+Starch-SAP) showed the slowest nitrogen release pattern among the three coating types with a release of only 40% of nitrogen in the first day of incubation and a gradual release of nitrogen till the 20th day.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Causing Mango Anthracnose

M. Kaviyarasi, A. Kamalakannan, L. Rajendran, S. Rajesh, M. Kavino, K. R. Swarna Lakshmi, J. Shajith Basha

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 837-844
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031230

Mango (Mangifera indica), a fruit with high nutritional value is widely regarded as a most palatable fruit crop which is affected by a number of biological constraints mainly diseases. Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides belongs to order Melanconiales is the important post harvest disease which restricts the marketing of mango. In the present study, thirteen isolates obtained from various places of Tamil Nadu were collected and isolated by tissue segment approach and purified. The isolates were confirmed phenotypically using morphological characters. Molecular investigation like PCR assay using universal primers ITS1 and ITS4 produced amplicon size of 560bp. The isolates were also identified using genus specific  and species specific primers which resulted in the amplicon size of 280bp and 380bp. As a result, The use of morphological and molecular approaches to characterise Mango anthracnose will be useful in identifying and managing the disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Intercomparision of Drone and Conventional Spraying Nutrients on Crop Growth and Yield in Black Gram

P. Nandhini, D. Muthumanickam, R. S. Pazhanivelan, R. Kumaraperumal, K. P. Ragunath, N. S. Sudarmanian

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 845-852
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031231

An experiment was conducted to reveal the effect of drone spraying of foliar nutrients on the crop growth and yield in black gram at Agricultural Research station, Bhavanisagar in Random block design with 12 treatments with 3 replications. The biometric parameters viz., plant height, leaf area, dry matter production and yield parameters viz., number of pods plant-1, haulm yield and grain yield were influenced more by drone spaying treatments than conventional method of knapsack spraying. The results revealed that Fuel operated drone spray of 2% pulse wonder with spray fluid of 75 L ha-1 using atomizer nozzle recorded the highest growth and yield attributes values. The treatment which registered the highest grain and haulm yield of 784 and 1525 kg ha-1 and it was performed better than as compared to foliar spraying of all 19 solution with fuel operated drone the and the lowest yield was noticed in control. From this study it is concluded that fuel operated drone spray of 2% pulse wonder using the atomizer nozzle with spray fluid of 75 L ha-1 is adopted to enhance the growth and grain yield of black gram.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Levels of Nutrients on Plant Growth, Yield and Quality of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in NFT (Nutrient Film Technique) Vertical System of Hydroponics under Shade Net Condition

Benjongyanger Longkumer, Vijay Bahadur, V. M. Prasad, Anita Kerketta

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 853-859
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031232

The present experiment was carried out under the Shade net, Research Field, Department of Horticulture, SHUATS, Prayagraj during the month of November 2021 to February 2022. Experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD), with eight treatments, replicated thrice with nutrient field technique hydroponics system and lettuce variety Grand Rapids. The treatments were T1 (NPK 2.8ml/Plant), T2 (NPK 4.2ml/Plant), T3 (NPK 5.71ml/Plant), T4 (NPK 7.14ml/Plant), T5 (NPK 8.57ml/Plant), T6 (NPK 10ml/Plant), T7 (NPK 11.43ml/Plant) and T8 (NPK12.86ml/Plant). From the observations T5 was found to be the best relating to growth and yield parameters followed by T6 and T7. In gross return, net return and B.C maximum values were also recorded in T5.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Boron Levels and Plant Growth Regulators on Growth, Yield and Economics of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)

Puneti Venkata Sujith, Victor Debbarma, Kuruva Kaveri

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 860-866
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031233

Background: Cowpeas thrive in poor dry conditions, growing well in soils up to 85% sand. This makes them a particularly important crop in arid, semidesert regions where not many other crops will grow. As well as an important source of food for humans in poor, arid regions, the crop can also be used as feed for livestock. Cowpea is primarily used in the form of dry seeds, fodder, green pod, green manure, and cover crops.

Objectives: Effects of boron levels and plant growth regulators on growth, yield and economics of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.).

Methods: The field experiment was conducted in Zaid season of 2021, at crop research farm of Department of Agronomy at Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj in North Eastern plains of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, under Randomized block design comprising of 10 treatments with different combination of boron levels and plant growth regulators which are replicated thrice.

Conclusion: Based on the above findings it can be concluded that the application of boron and plant growth regulators performs effective and improves the Plant height, Dry weight, No of Branches, No of pods per plant, No of seeds per pod, Test weight, Seed yield and stover yield of cowpea, the findings are based on research conducted during a single season, they may be repeated for further confirmation.

Open Access Review Article

Biostimulants: Concept, Types and Way to Enhance Soil Health

Neeraj Papnai, Dilip Kumar Chaurasiya, Sangita Sahni

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 24-40
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031126

Soil has immense capacity to function as a vital living ecosystem that not only support plants and animals but also acknowledges survival of people, as a result there has been renewed interest in soil health but due to the environmental repercussions of poor management, such as soil erosion and nutrient contamination, the health of soil is deteriorating with an increasing rate. Application of biostimulants can prove to be a prominent tool for enhancing soil health. Biostimulants are compounds, microorganisms or other materials that are capable of stimulating nutrition processes in plants or in their growth environments. Regardless of their nutritional content they increase the plant's nutrient use efficiency, partial factor productivity, tolerance to abiotic stress and quality of the crop. Many types of biostimulants have been differentiated by their administration technique either soil or foliar, or may be plant or animal derivatives, or by the distinctive procedure involved for their derivation that may be hydrolysis, fermentation or acid/alkali extraction. Stimulants of biological origin that are soil applied can promote the establishment, proliferation of beneficial soil organisms that furnish substrates for plant growth. Biostimulants enhance soil health (physical, chemical, biological properties) by targeting certain major prospects such as enhanced buffering capacity of soil, enhanced stability of aggregates and specific surface area. The use of environmentally friendly natural preparations is especially significant in light of the ongoing processes of soil degradation and air pollution. Enzymes, Protein hydrolysates, and Sea Weed Extracts, Humic substances, Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria and Phosphorus Solubilising Bacteria, Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria briefly comes under the umbrella of biostimulants. These biostimulants can be extracted from various methods such as alkali hydrolysis, partial hydrolysis, pressurised liquid extraction,etc. Even while a biostimulants may not have a short-term effect, it has the potential to improve soil health with progression, ensuing higher yields in the succeeding years.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Breeding in Ornamental Crops for Abiotic Stress Tolerance

Heera Lal Atal, Daripalli Srilakshmi, Kunal Debbarma, Lopamudra Jena, Meikam Ichancha

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 134-138
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031136

Abiotic stresses are major concerns in agriculture sector affecting large parts of India. It is caused by Drought, salinity and temperature (high/low) representing a major constraint over crop growth rate and productivity. In ornamental crops meagre efforts have been done towards this way. Now a day’s ornamental crops are the prospective way to earn higher income as compared to the other crops and have a significant role in national GDP. How can we grow Ornamental crops in stressed condition is one of the major challenge. To get tolerance power against abiotic stress various ways have been developed but among all methods very few have been proved worthy in case of ornamental crops. Interspecific and intergeneric hybridization is the basic way found hopeful strategy to improve tolerance against drought in some crops through domesticating abiotic stress-tolerant gens from their wild species into cultivated. Combination of both tissue culture and induces mutation approach (In vitro mutagenesis) is the one more important way for bringing stress tolerance and improvement in yield and quality of Ornamental crop plants. Genetic engineering is the modern tool which is used for breeding programme. The introduction of innovative characteristics such as new colours, biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in ornamental crops are usually difficult through predictable breeding, but by the use of genetic transformation we can get is easily.

Open Access Review Article

Basic Concepts of High throughput Metabolomics in Plants

Neha Chakrawarti, Rajshree Verma, Thirangtha Brahma, Apurba Das, Prety R. Narzary, Sanjib Sharma, Soumitro Goswami, Manuranjan Gogoi, Roshmi Dutta

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 365-377
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031164

Each cell contains many different metabolites and chemical molecules which are generated during cellular process. All the metabolites present in a cell at a particular time is called metabolome. The study of all the metabolites and their modification in a particular condition is called metabolomics. Metabolome is closely linked with genotype, physiology and environment. So,in a nutshell, metabolomics is the study of substrates and products of metabolism which are influenced by the genetic and environmental factors. In plants, metabolomics has now been frequently developed and studied in biotic and abiotic stress resistance. High throughput metabolomics includes time efficient and effective metabolite profiling techniques. These techniques are chromatography based and chromatography free methods. Chromatographic methods are NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS . Chromatographv free techniques include DI-MS,FI-MS,MALDI and Ambient MS . This paper will give an idea about how metabolomics work in elucidating plants phenotype, how sample is prepared for metabolite profiling, different techniques of metabolite profiling and various metabolomic databases.

Open Access Review Article

Integrated Nutrient Management: A Long-term Approach towards Sustainability

Tamanna Sharma, Vivak M. Arya, Vikas Sharma, Jyoti Sharma, Tajalee Gulshan, Anurag Bera, Yahiya Akram Laskar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 433-446
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031171

Increased global food demand, as well as the need for an environmentally acceptable approach for a sustainable soil-plant-microbe-environmental system, necessitate special attention when it comes to agricultural productivity. Chemical fertilization is one approach to increase crop productivity as happened during the Green revolution. Food grain output in India increased from 115.6 million tonnes in 1960-61 to over 281.37 million tonnes in 2018-19 as a result of chemical fertilization. Similarly, yearly fertilizer use jumped from 0.07 million tonnes in 1951-52 to over 25.95 million tonnes in 2016-17.But due to injudicious use of chemical fertilizers soil, plant, human and animal health are at stake. Also, increased soil compaction and widespread multinutrient deficits have emerged as important restrictions limiting crop productivity and farm income. Because a major rise in fertilizer consumption is unlikely in the near future for economic and environmental reasons, there is a need to improve nutrient use efficiency through integrated and balanced fertilizer. On the other hand, organic manures, are unable to fulfill all of a crop's nutritional needs. Integrated nutrient management (INM) was created as a result of the aforesaid factors being taken into account. In this paper,role of INM in overcoming these difficulties is discussed, as it has been offered as a promising solution for tackling these issues. Plant performance and resource efficiency can be improved in a variety of ways with INM while also allowing for environmental and resource protection quality. With the use of advanced INM procedures, chemical fertilizer inputs are reduced, resulting in fewer human and environmental costs without any negative impact on crop production.Long-term research in various soil-crop situations have demonstrated the advantages of integrated nutrient management (INM), which includes the utilisation of organic and biological resources as well as fertilizers. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the effect of various INM components on Physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil, nutrient use efficiency, crop productivity and the role of these components in improving soil health. The majority of INM research has been done using dominant crop rotations of main field crops cultivated in the subtropical North Western states of India and most of the experiments revealed that INM leads to long term sustainable production along with providing nutritional security and also reduces pollution and enhances soil health by improving various physical, chemical and biological properties of soil.

Open Access Review Article

Efficacy of Synthetic Insecticides against Pod Borer [Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner)] on Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp]

K. N. Sahithi Sharma, Anoorag R. Tayde

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 527-531
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2022/v34i2031184

The present investigation was conducted at Central Research Field, Department of Entomology, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj during the Kharif season of 2021. The field was laid in randomized block design (RBD) with six treatments    Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC 0.5ml/L, Spinosad 45SC 1ml/L, Emamectin benzoate 5%SG 0.04G/Kg, Neem oil 5% 50ml/L, karanj oil 5% 50ml/L, NSKE 5% 50ml/L and control viz., The larval population per plant was taken before spraying and 3,7 and 14 days after each spray all the insecticides tested significantly reduced the pest infestation compared to control. The results of the efficacy showed that the minimum larval population was recorded in the treatment Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC (2.26%, 1.80%). The next effective treatments were Spinosad 45SC (2.80%, 2.23%), Emamectin benzoate 5%SG (3.23%, 2.80%), Neem oil 5% (3.63%, 3.30%), karanj oil 5% (4.20%, 3.60%.), NSKE 5% (4.56%, 4.10%.), which was found to be least effective among all treatments. The best and most economical treatment Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC (1:2.82) followed by Spinosad 45 SC (1:2.44), Emamectin benzoate 5% SG (1:2.10), Neem oil 5% (1:1.92), karanj oil 5% (1:1.68), NSKE (1:1.49) as compared to the control plot (1:1.01).