Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Seaweed Extracts on Growth, Yield Parameters in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L)

Raja Sekhar Reddy Kurakula, Prashant Kumar Rai

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430746

This field experiment entitled “Effect of seaweed extracts on growth, yield parameters in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum. L)” was conducted during rabi at Field Experimentation Centre of the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India during 2019 & 2020. The experiment was consisted of 2 varieties and 14 treatments comprising of seaweed extracts (i.e., Ascophyllum nodosum, red and brown algae) which was laid in RBD (Randomized Block Design) with kabuli & desi chick pea, 14 treatments, 03 replications. The result shows that among all the treatments, the genotypes kabuli & desi chickpea treated with 2.0% A.  nodosum for 6 hours recorded the maximum value in growth parameters such as percent field germination after four (10.74 & 10.74), seven (49.26 & 47.41), and ten (77.41 & 70.74) DAS, Days to 50% flowering (88.67 & 86.00), days to maturity (154.00 & 156.33), number of branches 25 (17.93 & 16.60) and 50 DAS (36.70 & 33.57) and height at 25 (4.47 & 3.93) and 50 (7.27 & 7.00) DAS.  Similar results were also recorded in different yield parameters in both kabuli & desi chickpea genotypes such as number of pods plant (61.52 & 60.24), number of pods per plot (1025.67 & 922.00), number of seeds per plant (102.5 & 100.4), number of pods per plant (14.25 & 1525), seed yield per plant (28.30 & 25.35), seed yield per plot (358.44 & 328.86), biological yield (3187.42 & 3061.24), economical yield (1341.67 & 1231.33), and harvest index showing most superior values when treated with treatment 2.0% Ascophyllum nodosum for 6 hours. Remaining treatments i.e, treatment with 0.5% Ascophyllum nodosum solution, 1.0% Ascophyllum nodosum solution, 0.5% red and brown algae solution, 1.0% red and brown algae solution, 2.0% red and brown algae solution for 6 hours recorded the second most effective treatments observed significantly superior than untreated checks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Heat Tolerant Maize Genotypes under Moisture Stress during Rainy Season in Karnataka

B. N. Shwetha, B. M. Chittapur, P. H. Kuchanur, B. G. Koppalkar, A. S. Halepyati, . Mahadevaswamy, H. Veeresh, Y. M. Ramesh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 9-16
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430747

This research was formulated to study the response of heat tolerant genotypes to prolonged period of water stress prevalent under rainfed situation. The trial was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Dhadesugur, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, Karnataka, India, during rainy season (kharif) 2019. The present study comprised of three stress tolerant genotypes (RCRMH 2, RCRMH 3 and RCRMH 4) with four moisture stress stages (imposed between 20-40, 40-60, 60-80 and 80-100 DAS) which were sown during June, July and August, and the design employed was Randomized complete block design. The results revealed that superior performance of RCRMH 3 (5321 kg ha-1) over other genotypes whether stressed or not, but all the genotypes were on par with each other in terms of physiological parameters viz., proline accumulation, relative water content, canopy temperature, NDVI, relative chlorophyll content and ASI, and these parameters exhibited good correlation with yield and hence found ideal for stress studies. The present study indicated that these cultivars sustain maize production under moisture stress condition and therefore, are suitable to semiarid region characterized by inclement weather.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Rock Phosphate Enriched Compost on Soil Nutrient Status after Harvest of Finger Millet-Cowpea Cropping Sequence in High Phosphorus Soils of Cauvery Command Area, Karnataka

G. S. Jagadeesha, H. C. Prakasha, M. N. Shivakumara, K. Govinda, S. B. Yogananda

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 17-35
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430748

A field experiment was conducted at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, VC Farm, Mandya during kharif 2017, summer 2018, kharif 2018 and summer 2019 to study the effect of rock phosphate enriched compost on soil nutrient status after harvest of finger millet-cowpea cropping sequence. Prior to initiation of the field experiment, three different composts viz., urban solid waste compost (USWC), vermicompost and farm yard manure (FYM) were enriched with rock phosphate at 5 per cent. Field experiment consisting of eleven treatment combinations comprising recommended N and K, and P through varied levels of enriched composts. The experiment was laid out in RCBD design with three replications and the test crops were finger millet and cowpea. The initial P2O5 of the experimental site was very high (133.58 kg ha-1). The results revealed that application of recommended N and K + 75 per cent P supplied through enriched USWC (T5) had significantly higher organic carbon (0.56 and 0.58%) in pooled data of both finger millet and cowpea, respectively. Available N (241.94 and 224.86 kg ha-1), P2O5 (138.69 and 120.99 kg ha-1) and K2O (153.92 and 135.31 kg ha-1) were recorded significantly higher in T5 of finger millet and cowpea, respectively. Similarly, in pooled mean, exchangeable Ca [4.15 and 4.04 C mol (P+) kg-1] and Mg [2.16 and 2.05 C mol (P+) kg-1] were recorded significantly higher in treatment which received recommended N and K + 75 per cent P supplied through enriched vermicompost (T8) in both finger millet and cowpea, respectively. The decrease of available P2O5 was 20.98 per cent from initial (133.58 kg ha-1) to final crop (summer 2019) (105.55 kg ha-1).

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Nutrient Concentration on Growth, Yield And Quality of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) in Hydroponic System

Baiamonlangki Sutnga, Vijay Bahadur, Anita Kerketta

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 36-42
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430749

The present experiment entitled Influence of nutrient concentration on Growth, Yield and Quality of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) in Hydroponic system” was carried out in Shade net, Research Field, Department of Horticulture, SHUATS, Prayagraj during  March- April,2020.. The experiment was laid out in complete randomized design (CRD), with eight treatments, replicated thrice with nutrient field technique hydroponics system and variety Mulayam of Spinach, the treatments were T1 (NPK 6.25 ml/plant), T2 (NPK 8.33 ml/plant), T3 (NPK 10.41 ml/plant), T4 (NPK 12.5 ml/plant), T5 (NPK 14.58 ml/plant), T6 (NPK 16.66 ml/plant), T7 (NPK 18.75 ml/plant) and T0 (NPK 0 ml/plant). From the present experimental findings, it is found that structure with treatment T4 was found best in terms of Growth and yield parameters of spinach in NFT hydroponic system followed by structure with T3 and T1 due to appropriate supply of plant nutrients and the water treated plants had the lowest values. Maximum gross return (1871.30Rs) and net return (746.30 Rs) and maximum benefit cost ratio (1.66) was also observed in treatment T4. As seen from the experiment, it was observed that the treatment T4 was ideal nutrient for Spinach good growth and yield. Therefore, an ideal nutrient concentration helps the plants in good growth and yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Zeolite Application on Growth, Yield and Yield Attributes of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana L.) in Rainfed Condition

M. N. Shivakumara, R. Krishna Murthy, G. S. Jagadeesha

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 43-58
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430750

A field experiment was conducted at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Gandhi Krishi vigyana Kendra, Bengaluru during kharif-2017 and 2018 to study the influence of zeolite application on growth and yield of finger millet crop. The pooled analysis showed significantly higher plant height recorded in the treatment which received zeolite 50 kg ha-1 +125 per cent RDF (Recommended dose of fertilizer)  which was at par with the treatment which received zeolite 50 kg ha-1 +100 per cent RDF in 30, 60, 90 and at Harvest stage. The number of tillers per hill (3.44), total dry matter production (41.67 g hill-1), number of fingers per ear head (5.95), straw yield (36.07 q ha-1) and grain yield (48.00 q ha-1) was recorded in the treatment received zeolite 50 kg ha-1 +125 per cent RDF which was at par with the treatment which received zeolite 50 kg ha-1 +100 per cent RDF in pooled analysis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-hyperglycemic Efficiency of the Aqueous Seed Extract of Mucuna pruriens in Nicotinamide-Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Wistar Rats

Reuben-Kalu J. I., Renuka R.

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 59-67
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430751

This study was undertaken to evaluate the remedial effect of the aqueous seed extract of Mucuna pruriens (ASEMP) on the endocrine region of pancreas of nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetes in Wistar rats. The anti-hyperglycemic efficiency of two varieties of Mucuna pruriens var utilis; IIHR Selection 3 and Arka Dhanvantari was investigated. Oral administration of ASEMP against the nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetes in the Wistar rats showed anti-hyperglycemic effect on the blood glucose level (94 ± 0.2 mg/dl ASEMP 400 mg/kg) when compared with the control group (92 ± 0.2 mg/dl glibenclamide 5 mg/kg), (248 ± 0.3 mg/dl Diabetic control) and (90 ± 0.3 mg/dl Normal control). Significant reduction in creatinine level of the nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with ASEMP was also recorded. Histopathology examination of the endocrine region of pancreas of the rats revealed restoration of pancreatic islet cells in the diabetic-ASEMP treated rats as the beta cell mass increased and necrotic changes was reduced significantly in contrast with the diabetic control group which showed degenerated pancreatic islet cells. Therefore, this study supports and recommends the exploration of the aqueous seed extract of M. pruriens as a complementary medicine for the management of type-2 diabetes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Plant Growth and Tuber Yield of Dahlia (Dahlia variabilis) cv. Kenya White

T. Raghunandan, J. P. Collis, S. Saravanan, K. S. Barman

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 80-84
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430753

The experiment was carried out at Experimental field, Department of Horticulture, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology and Sciences [formerly known as Allahabad Agriculture Institute Deemed University, AAI-DU] during the Spring season 2014-2015. The experiment consists of Thirteen treatments viz., (T0) Control-RDF (100:120:100 N P K  kg ha-1,), (T1) 75% RDF + AZ@ 2.5 kg ha-1,, (T2) 75% RDF + FYM @ 10 ton ha-1, (T3) 75% RDF + VC@ 10 ton ha-1, (T4) 75% RDF + AZ @ 2.5 kg/ha +FYM @ 10 ton ha-1+VC @ 10 ton ha-1, (T5) 50% RDF +AZ@ 2.5 kg ha-1, (T6) 50% RDF + FYM@ 10 ton ha-1, (T7) 50% RDF + VC@ 10 ton ha-1, (T8) 50% RDF +  AZ @ 2.5 kg ha-1+FYM @ 10 ton ha-1+VC @ 10 ton ha-1, (T9) 25% RDF + AZ@ 2.5 kg ha-1, (T10) 25% RDF + FYM@ 10 ton ha-1, (T11) 25% RDF + VC@ 10 ton ha-1+, (T12) 25% RDF +  AZ @ 2.5 kg ha-1+FYM @ 10 ton ha-1+VC @ 10 ton ha-1. The treatments were replicated thrice in a Randomized Complete Block Design. The results revealed that Plants treated with 75% RDF + AZ @ 2.5 kg/ha +FYM @ 10 t/ha +VC @ 10 t/ha (T4) significantly recorded maximum vegetative and Tuber yield attributes like plant height (91.87 cm), plant spread (92.38 cm), Number of Branches per plant (7.27), number of leaves per plant (26.53), number of tubers per plant (4.80), maximum tuber weight (958.53) and Maximum tuber yield per plant was recorded in T4 (75% RDF + AZ @ 2.5 kg/ha +FYM @ 10 t/ha +VC @ 10 t/ha) (43.33g) followed by T3 (75% RDF + VC @ 10 t/ha) (40.95g).

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Nutrient Management through Bio Organic Manures on Quality of Acid Lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle)

V. Vijay Prabha, A.Vignesh Kumar, Y. Angel, S. Abinaya, G. Pradeep Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 85-89
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430754

Acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) is one of the commercial fruit crops which occupies important place in the fruit industry, but yield levels of citrus orchards are still very low. Alternate nutrient management system could help in achieving high yield and quality of acid lime. Thus, an investigation was undertaken on the “Effect of nutrient management through bio-organic manures on quality of acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle)” in the Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamil Nadu, India during 2016 – 2018. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with twelve treatments, various organic manures, biofertilizers along with inorganic fertilizers including recommended dose of fertilization @ 100%, 75%, 50%, farm yard manure @ 100%, 50%, Vermicompost @ 100%, 50%, Biofertilizers ( 25g Azotobacter + 25g phosphate solubilising bacteria + 150g vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal) were applied. The quality characters of acid lime were studied at different stages. The observations recorded viz., plant height (m), canopy spread east-west (m), canopy spread north-south (m), canopy height (m), no. of leaves per canopy, leaf area (cm2). The results revealed that plants treated with of T8 -75% RDF + 50% FYM + 50% Vermicompost + Biofertilizers (25g Azotobacter + 25g PSB + 150g VAM) was observed maximum plant height (m), canopy spread east-west (m), canopy spread north-south (m), canopy height (m), no. of leaves per canopy, leaf area (cm2).

Open Access Original Research Article

Genome Wide Association Studies to Dissect Genetic Factors Conferring Sheath Blight Resistance in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Mahantesh ., K. Ganesamurthy, Sayan Das, R. Saraswathi, C. Gopalakrishnan, R. Gnanam

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 90-100
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430755

Rice Sheath blight (ShB) is one of the most serious fungal diseases caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Breeding for sheath blight resistance has been ineffective exercise so far, mainly because of lack of good number of reliable sources of resistance in rice germplasm. In this context our studies indicated that the lines Tetep, Jasmine 85 and MTU 9992 confer resistant to moderately resistant reaction against the pathogen. The current investigation was carried out to dissect the genetic factors governing resistance to sheath blight through genome wide association study (GWAS) from the mapping populations developed by design where in, each of the resistant parents were crossed to three to four highly susceptible parents to generate eleven populations (Jasmine 85XTN1, Jasmine 85XSwarnaSub1, Jasmine 85XII32B, Jasmine 85XIR54, TetepXTN1, TetepXSwarnaSub1, TetepXII32B, TetepXIR54, MTU 9992XTN1, MTU 9992XII32B and MTU 9992XIRBB4). A total of 1545 Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from eleven crosses were used for the study. During rainy 2020 the F7 RILs were screened for their reaction to Sheath blight in two hot spot locations. The genotyping was done with Illumina platform having 6564 SNP markers. Genome wide association study was done with two models Generalized Linear Model (GLM) and Mixed Linear Model (MLM). Results clearly indicate the superiority of MLM over GLM in correcting the population structure. With MLM model, in Jasmine 85 half-sib populations with 565 RILs analyzed, five QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci) were detected on Chr1, Chr3, Chr9, Chr10 and Chr11 with –log10 (P-Value) more than 3. In TETEP half-sib populations with 714 RILs examined, seven QTLs were observed on Chr1, Chr2, Chr5, Chr6, Chr7, Chr8, and Chr11 with –log10 (P-Value) more than 4. Whereas in MTU 9992 half-sib populations with 266 RILs studied, three novel QTLs were identified on Chr2, Chr6 and Chr11 with –log10 (P-Value) more than 3. Some of these QTLs were reported by researches earlier. In the current research, some novel QTLs were detected in Jasmine 85 (Chr10) and Tetep (Chr2, Chr5 and Chr6) apart from three new QTLs discovered in MTU 9992. The results facilitated to have better understanding of the genetic basis for sheath blight resistance in rice. Pyramiding all the QTL identified so far into a susceptible varieties is complicated affair as resistance is governed by not only several large effect QTLs but also medium to small effect QTLs as well, hence genomic selection approach could be rewarding for breeding for sheath blight resistance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variation in Calcium Content of Ginger Germplasm Inoculated with Bio-Agent, Trichoderma viride against Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita

Manaswini Mahapatra, Dhirendra Kumar Nayak, Pranaya Pradhan, Antaryami Mishra

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 101-105
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430756

The study was aimed to control nematodes in ginger crop in a sustainable way through inoculation of bio-agent, Trichoderma viride. The outcome of our research revealed that Trichoderma viride alone (T2) was the most effective treatment among all. This bio-agent has lowered the root-knot nematode populations by suppressing the disease intensity and responsible for enhancement of plant growth, increases the availability of nutrients to host plant. Meloidogyne incognita alone (T1) infected rhizomes resulted in highest reduction of calcium content amounting 2.26 and 2.43 mg/100g dry weight whereas maximum content was recorded in Trichoderma viride alone (T2) inoculated rhizomes as 2.84 and 3.08 mg 100g-1 dry weight in suravi and suprabha over control (T7) respectively. Trichoderma viride inoculated 15 days prior to Meloidogyne incognita (TV→MI) was found to be most efficient one among all combined treatments. Susceptibility towards nematode induced more nutrient deposition in rhizomes of ginger crop due to poor translocation process through xylem.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploring the Genetic Variability for Yield Attributing Traits among the Indigenous and Exotic Collection of Wheat in Cis-Himalayan Region of West Bengal, India

Sahanob Nath, Saikat Das, Debojyoti Basak, Sanghamitra Rout, Satyajit Hembram, Suvendu Kumar Roy, Manoj Kanti Debnath, Rupsanatan Mandal

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 106-113
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430758

A field experiment was conducted at Instructional Farm, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, during the 2018-19 rabi season to study the genetic components and genetic variability based on eleven number of quantitative traits in 254 bread wheat lines, which were collected from NBPGR, New Delhi. Analysis of variance for treatment showed high significance for all the traits except grain yield polt-1. Estimated GCV and PCV were high for awn length, peduncle length, plant height and AUDPC. Plant height (97.83), awn length (95.49), peduncle length (94.88), test weight (90.98), days to 50% flowering (87.66), number of grains spike-1 (70.33) and spike length (62.3) showed high heritability along with a high degree of genetic advance. Finally, 254 wheat accessions were grouped into three clusters based on the dendrogram analysis using the ward method.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Selected Essential Oils and Botanicals on Alternaria Blight (Alternaria brassicae (Berk) Sacc) of Mustard (Brassica juncea (Linn) Czern and Coss

Keerthana Muddappa, Sunil Zacharia

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 114-120
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430759

Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.coss) is also known as sarson, rai or raya, toria or Lahi.it is a herbaceous annual plant. Mustard is the second important oilseed crop in the world after sunflower, soybean and palm oil. Alternaria blight disease caused by Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc. It has been reported from all the continents of the world. Average yield losses occur due to various pest and diseases among which Alternaria blight is an important disease. Field experiment was conducted at the research plot of the Department of Plant Pathology, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh during the rabi season of 2020-2021 to test, Effect of selected essential oils and botanicals against Alternaria blight (Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc) of mustard (Brassica juncea (Linn.) Czern and Coss), by foliar spray of certain essential oil, plant extracts and fungicide. The treatments were Neem oil @2%, Eucalyptus oil @2%, Pongamia oil @2%, Lawsonia inermis extract @15%, Chenopodium album extract @15% Mancozeb (treated check) @ 0.2% and control (untreated check). The percent disease intensity on leaves at 45, 60 and 75 DAS, number of siliquae per plant, number of seeds per siliquae, length of siliquae (cm), test weight of seed (1000 number), biological yield (gm) and seed yield were recorded. Among the treatments, maximum number of number of siliquaes (243.13), maximum number of seeds per siliquae (12.27), length of siliquae (5.16 cm), minimum disease intensity (%) (29.01 %), maximum test weight (3.57 gm), maximum yield (9.43 qt) and biological yield (24.70 gm) were recorded in the treatment T2 Eucalyptus oil @2% followed by T1 Neem oil @2%, T4 Lawsonia inermis  extract @15%, T3 Pongamia oil @2%, T5 Chenopodium extract @15%, when compared to treated check T6 Mancozeb @ 0.2% and untreated check T0. Higher gross return value (Rs. 66295), net return value (Rs. 29295), and B: C ratio (1.7:1) was found in the treatment T2 – Eucalyptus oil @2% as compared to T5–mancozeb and T0–control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Using Zeolite and Vermicompost Amendments to Improve Water Productivity of Wheat Irrigated by Low-quality Water in the Northern Nile Delta

T. H. H. Khalifa, M. S. A. Ramadan, Mona S. M. Eid

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 121-135
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430760

Aims: In the long run, reusing low-quality water in Egypt's agricultural sector directly or after mixing with fresh water to compensate for water supply constraints can be hazardous to plants and soil. As a result, some appropriate management must be considered. For this reason, a field experiment was implemented in winter seasons 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 at Sakha Agric. Res. Station Farm, Kafr El-Sheikh Gov., Egypt. This study aims to assess the impacts of zeolite and vermicompost as well their combinations on alleviation of low-quality water impacts on physicochemical properties of clayey soil and wheat productivity.

Study Design:  complete randomized block design with three replicates.

Results: The application of 2.40 Mg Z ha-1 was found to be the most effective on soil properties and plant growth. This treatment reduced soil EC, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO42-, and ESP values the most (52.90 percent, 83.21 percent, 30.43 percent, 6.04 percent, 91.82 percent, 19.83 percent, and 70.73 percent, respectively), while increasing the K+ value by 32.47 percent. It also achieved the highest increases in plant height, 1000-grain weight, grain, and straw yields (35.92%, 9.60%, 42.77%, and 25.61%, respectively) when compared to untreated soil. With 2.40 Mg VC ha-1, the greatest changes in bulk density, total porosity, and CEC (-9.23, 9.30, and 10.54 percent, respectively) were obtained. The applications of 1.80 Mg Z with 0.6 Mg VC ha-1 and 0.6 Mg Z ha-1 with 1.80 Mg VC ha-1, on the other hand, resulted in the greatest increases in soil moisture content, drainable pores (DP), and water holding pores (WHP). Furthermore, 0.6 Mg Z combined with 1.80 Mg VC ha-1 significantly increased the available N, P, and K in the soil. The addition of 2.4 tons Z/ha increased the WP and resulted in a high economically appealing wheat.

Conclusion: It could be concluded that the application of Z and VC is a new strategy for alleviating abiotic stress and improving wheat growth. Z application was more effective than VC on improving soil physicochemical properties and improving the water productivity and achieve high economical attractiveness wheat irrigated by low-quality water.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Parental Polymorphism and Allelic Variation for Grain Quality and Yield Traits in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Using SSR Markers

Sanket Rathi, Sameer Upadhyay, P. K. Singh, Rajesh Kumar, Pallavi ., Prashant Bisen, Bapsila Loitongbam, Sanchika Snehi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 136-149
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430761

Aim: Identification of polymorphic markers is prerequisite for conducting any QTL mapping experiment because if the parents are polymorphic for the traits of interest, then further selection of plants in the progenies becomes easy. Hence, the objective of the present study was to identify polymorphic markers for grain quality and yield traits among the parental lines Improved Samba Mahsuri and Badshabhog.

Place and Duration of Study: It was carried out at Molecular Breeding Lab, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, India, during 2019.

Methodology: Two parents Improved Samba Mahsuri and Badshabhog were used for the present study. The DNA extraction was done as per the CTAB method suggested by Murray and Thompson. Standard PCR protocol was followed.

Results: For parental polymorphism survey, a total of 576 randomly selected SSR markers including 26 gene specific markers related to aroma, cooking and eating quality, grain dimension and yield related traits distributed across the 12 chromosomes of rice were used. Overall, 96 markers including 4 gene specific markers were found to be polymorphic between the two genotypes indicating a total polymorphism percentage of 16.67%. The highest polymorphism percentage was recorded on chromosome 6 (26.67%) followed by chromosome 4 (21.43%) and the lowest polymorphism percentage was observed on chromosome 10 (8.93%). The gene specific markers nksbad2, ARO7, BADEX7_5 and SSI were found to be polymorphic.

Conclusion: Based on the present study it may be concluded that the polymorphic markers identified will further be utilized in genotyping of F2:3 population, linkage analysis and mapping QTL’s for grain quality and yield traits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Abiotic Factors on Population of Aphid Complex and Its Coexisting Natural Enemies in Mustard Agroecosystem

Somala Karthik, U. Mukherjee

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 150-154
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430762

A field experiment was conducted to determine the population build-up of mustard aphid and their natural enemies in relation to abiotic factors at TCA, Dholi during the Rabi season of 2019-20 and 2020-21 respectively. The incidence of mustard aphid started in the 2nd and 3rd SMW of 2019 and 2020 respectively and reached maximum in 8th SMW in both the years. However, the predatory activity of coccinellids, syrphid larvae and spiders were started from 3rd SW with their peak activity at 3rd and 4th week of February in both the years. Mustard aphid population exhibited positive correlation with maximum temperature (0.347 & 0.543), minimum temperature (0.317 & 0.152) and negative correlation with relative humidity (-0.083 & -0.479) during 2019-20 & 2020-21 respectively. However, natural enemies viz., coccinellids, syrphid larvae and spiders exhibited positive correlation with Tmax, Tmin, rainfall and negative correlation with RH in both the years.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Zinc Fortification on Quality, Yield and Economics of Sweetcorn

Monika Peddapuli, B. Venkateswarlu, V. Sai Surya Gowthami

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 155-164
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430763

A field experiment was performed at Agricultural College, Bapatla, ANGRAU, Guntur during kharif season of 2020 to evaluate the efficacy of zinc nutrition on quality, yield and economics of sweetcorn. Experiment was carried out in Randomized Block Design and comprising of nine treatments with three replications. The results disclosed that application of recommended dose of fertilizers along with soil application of 10 kg ha-1 Zn EDTA + two foliar sprays of nano zinc @ 250 ppm at 20 & 40 DAS registered remarkably higher protein content (12.98%) and zinc content (34.59 ppm) in kernel which was considered to be superior over the remaining zinc management practices tried. Also, highest green cob (12,638 kg ha-1), green fodder (19,674 kg ha-1), stover yield (7,590 kg ha-1) and gross returns (₹ 1,93,360 ha-1) was recorded from the treatment with soil application of Zn EDTA @ 10 kg ha-1 + two foliar sprays of nano zinc @ 250 ppm at 20 & 40 DAS along with RDF over control. However, highest net returns (₹ 1,38,664 ha-1) and benefit cost ratio (2.74) was recorded with RDF + ZnSO4 @ 25 kg ha-1 (Soil) + Nano ZnO @ 250 ppm at 20 and 40 DAS (Foliar spray). The effectiveness of Zn EDTA compared to ZnSO4 is responsible for the higher quality parameters and yield of sweetcorn but due to its higher cost, Net returns and B;C ratio are maximum for the plots treated with ZnSO4 making it more economically viable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimating Genetic Parameters for DSSAT CROPGRO-Cotton Model Calibration and Validation

G. Srinivasan, S. Pazhanivelan, S. Murali Krishnasamy, N. S. Sudarmanian, S. Rajeswari, Balaji Kannan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 165-172
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430764

DSSAT CROPGRO-Cotton Model (version 4.7.5) was generally used to forecast the effect of climate change on productivity. The objective of this study was to calibrate and validate this model in Tamil Nadu, India for simulation of development, growth and seed cotton yield of Suraj cotton cultivars under varied planting dates viz., 28th July, 11th August, 18th August, 25th August, 8th September and 15th September. The model was calibrated with data (phenology, biomass and yield components) collected during 2019. Calibration of CROPGRO-Cotton model with genetic coefficients of cultivar Suraj for seed cotton yield (kg ha-1). Simulation of days to flowering, days from planting to first pod and physiological maturity, LAI and seed cotton yield with normalized RMSE (NRMSE) values of less than 10% across all the various planting dates densities were considered excellent. Finally, we discovered that planting at the right time can mitigate many of the negative effects of fluctuating weather on cotton productivity. As a result conclude that DSSAT model will be used to make decision on cotton planting in changing climates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Approaches of Nutrient Application on Yield, Nutrient Uptake, Nutrient use Efficiency and Economics of Carrot

N. Bhavya, P. K. Basavaraja, H. Mohamed Saqeebulla, G. V. Gangamrutha

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 173-179
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430765

A field experiment was conducted during Kharif 2017 at Devanahalli village, Bengaluru rural district of Karnataka to evaluate the effect of different approaches of nutrient application on yield,  nutrient uptake and use efficiency by carrot (Daucus carota L.). The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design replicated thrice with eight treatments comprisingT1 (STCR target 20 tha-1  through inorganics), T2 (STCR target 20 tha-1  through integrated), T3 (STCR target 25 tha-1  through inorganics), T4 (STCR target 25 tha-1  through integrated), T5 (RDF (75: 63: 50) N, P2O5, K2O kg ha-1+ FYM), T6 (LMH /STL + FYM), T7 (Farmers practice (92.6:159:0) N, P2O5 kg ha-1 + FYM), T8 (Absolute control).Results revealed that significantly higher root (27.51 t ha-1)  and shoot (16.48 t ha-1) yield were recorded in STCR target of 25 t ha-1 through   integrated approach. Similarly, higher total uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium  (297.07 kg, 57.48 kg and 253.81 kg ha-1, respectively) by carrot and the higher apparent recovery   efficiency (0.35, 0.08 and 0.58 kg kg-1 of N, P2O5 and K2O, respectively) and agronomic nutrient use efficiency (26.10, 12.37 and 48.25 kg kg-1 of N, P2O5 and K2O, respectively) were recorded in the same STCR target of 25 t ha-1 through integrated approach. However, the better profit was recorded (value cost ratio: 43.30) in STCR target of 25 t ha-1 through inorganics. The STCR target of 25 t ha-1 through integrated approach had the most positive effect for the carrot cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Pre and Post Emergence Herbicides Application on Economics of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.)

S. Mehetre, P. Pawar, R. Pawar, M. Gurav

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 180-185
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430766

An experiment was conducted during kharif 2020 at Post Graduate Research Farm, Agronomy Section, College of Agriculture, Dhule to study the effect of pre and post emergent herbicides application on economics of pearl millet production. Experiment consisted of nine treatments namely weedy check (T1), weed free (T2), atrazine @ 500 g/ha PoE (T3), 2,4-D (Dimethyl amine) @ 500 g/ha at 25-30 DAS PoE (T4), 2,4-D (Na Salt) @ 500 g/ha at 25-30 DAS PoE (T5), atrazine @ 500 g/ha PE fb 2,4-D (Dimethyl amine) @ 500 g/ha at 25-30 DAS PoE (T6), atrazine @ 500 g/ha PE fb 2,4-D (Na Salt) @ 500 g/ha at 25-30 DAS PoE (T7), pendimethalin 750 g/ha PE fb 2,4-D (Dimethyl amine) @ 500 g/ha at 25-30 DAS PoE (T8), pendimethalin 750 g/ha PE fb 2,4-D (Na Salt) @ 500 g/ha at 25-30 DAS PoE (T9) laid out in randomized block design with three replications. Among the herbicidal treatments, grain yield (kg/ha) and straw yield (kg/ha) was observed better with application of pendimethalin @ 750 g/ha PE fb 2,4-D (Na Salt) @ 500 g/ha at 25-30 DAS PoE (T9). Among the chemical weed management treatments, application of pendimethalin @ 750 g/ha PE fb 2,4-D (Na Salt) @ 500 g/ha at 25-30 DAS PoE (T9) observed higher gross and net monetary returns (₹/ha). However, the gross and net monetary returns (₹/ha) were maximum under weed free treatment but lower B:C ratio as compared to sequential application of pendimethalin @ 750 g/ha PE fb 2,4-D (Na Salt) @ 500 g/ha at 25-30 DAS PoE (T9) and pendimethalin @ 750 g/ha PE fb 2,4-D (Dimethyl amine) @ 500 g/ha at 25-30 DAS PoE (T8) due to higher cost for labour weeding.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical Analysis Based on Zinc Uptake of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Varieties Infected by Meloidogyne incognita

Pranaya Pradhan, Dhirendra Kumar Nayak, Manaswini Mahapatra

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 186-192
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430767

The significant constraints in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) production hampers a bit more than 14% global yield loss due to plant-parasitic nematodes. Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne sp.) is an endoparasite and a significant species affecting the chickpea plant. So, the chemical basis of management is more cost-effective, and pest resurgence building is enhanced in the pathogen. So, ecological-based nematode management is requisite, which also is got hampered due to breeding for resistance against such plant-parasitic nematodes. This was the primary reason to conduct this experiment to enhance resistance in the chickpea plants based on Zinc uptake by using bioagent, Pseudomonas fluorescens alone or in combination. where Different treatments including nematode, bacterium, and chemicals were used sustaining the enhancement of disease resistance in chickpea cultivars, RSG 974, GG 5, GNG 2144. Zinc content of chickpea variety GNG 2144 was found the highest in treatment, when only bacterium (P. fluorescens) was inoculated, i.e., 3.14 mg/100g of root followed by GG 5, i.e., 2.79 mg/100g of root and RSG 974 was, i.e., 2.35 mg/100g of root respectively in a descending order. Application of P. fluorescence combined or alone gradually increased the Zn concentration in roots of chickpea plants compared to healthy check followed by chemical treated plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Automated Drip Irrigation System on Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

R. Suvitha, A. Velayutham, V. Geethalakshmi, S. Panneerselvam, P. Jeyakumar, K. Nagarajan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 193-198
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430768

Field experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of different automated drip irrigation on tomato crop under sandy clay loam soil in Tamil Nadu Agricultural University during kharif 2019 and kharif 2020. Five treatments comprising 4 different automated drip irrigation systems are time based drip irrigation, volume based drip irrigation, soil moisture sensor based irrigation, switching tensiometer based irrigation and one is conventional method of irrigation were tested. The results revealed that tensiometer based drip irrigation recorded higher fruit yield of 95.11 and 96.21 t ha-1 and water use efficiency of 21.10 and 25.42 t ha-mm-1 resulting in increment over conventional method of irrigation. However, the above treatment was followed by soil moisture sensor based drip irrigation in tomato. Tensiometer based drip irrigation helps to save the water up to 54.91 and 60.55 % compared to conventional method of irrigation during kharif 2019 and 2020.

Open Access Original Research Article

Site Specific Nutrient Management Options for Achieving Higher Yields in Cotton and Chickpea under Rainfed Condition

S. Balaji Nayak, D. Balaguravaiah, K. V. Ramana, T. Giridharakrishna, P. Munirathnam, B. Ravindra Reddy

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 199-209
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430769

A study was undertaken to delineation of spatial variability of soil fertility status in order to prepare soil available nutrient maps for improved productivity in different crops grown in the study area of Kurnool revenue division in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh state using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The Knowledge of spatial-variability is critical for site specific nutrient management in soil fertility to obtain higher yields. Soil sample (350) were collected from surface from 350 selected sites for preparing precise digital maps using point, line and polygon tools of the Geographic Information System (GIS) with ArcGIS software 10.3 was used for database creation and for creating the union of various thematic maps. The spatial variability maps were generated and delineated into different zones for N, P and K. Soil available Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium spatial variability values generated from the thematic maps of Kurnool division were used to establish fertilizer recommendations for cotton in kharif and Chickpea in rabi during  2018-19 seasons. The recommended doses of Nitrogen (RDN) that worked for cotton were 401 to 450, 351 to 400, > 450 and < 350 kg ha-1 for the areas with Nitrogen availability of 140 to 210, 210 to 280, <140 and > 280 kg/ha, respectively. The Phosphorous fertilizer recommendation for soils with available P of < 30 kg/ha and > 30 kg/ha was figured out as > 250 kg ha-1 and < 250 kg ha-1, respectively. For soil available Potassium recorded 230 to 560, < 230 and > 560 kg/ha, the K recommendation was figured out as 301 to 400, > 401 and < 300 kg/ha, respectively. Recommended doses of Nitrogen (RDN) was worked out for chickpea were 51 to 75, > 76 and < 50 kg/ha for the areas with available N ranges of 184 to 280, < 184 and > 280 kg/ha, respectively. The Phosphatic fertilizer recommendation for soils of available P of < 23.5 and 23.5 to 40 kg/ha was figured out as > 200 kg/ha and 171 to 200 kg/ha, respectively. For the soil available potassium recorded 253 to 412, 413 to 570, < 253 and > 570 kg/ha, the K recommendation was figured out as 66 to 100, 31 to 65, > 100 and < 30 kg/ha, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trait Based Adaptation and Yield Stability Parameters in Little Millet (Panicum sumatrense Roth. ex. Roem. and Schultz.)

V. Manimozhi Selvi, A. Nirmalakumari

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 210-221
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430770

Twelve accessions of littlemillet genotypes which included 10 germplasm accessions and two released check varieties were studied over five environments of rainy seasons of 2013 for their grain yield and stability. The results have shown that genotypes TNPsu 141 and TNPsu 28 had possessed around unit regression coefficient (b = 1.24 to 0.82), thus displaying average stability and are adaptable to all the above five different agro-ecological zones.  Also, these genotypes had non- significant S2di values enabling it to predict the stability. Genotypes TNPsu 17, PM 29, TNPsu 18, and IPmr 886 manifested significantly higher single plant grain yield than the standard check varieties along with regression coefficient values of greater than one expressing above-average stability. These can be performed better in a favourable environment. However, they were classified as unstable due to their significant S2 di values revealing that the performance of the genotypes was unpredictable for the given environment. These genotypes were performed better under optimum conditions. Out of 12 genotypes MS 1826 and MS 4684 had an average response and appeared unpredictable stability. However, among the genotypes studied, TNPsu 141 possessed low yield and perform better in sub -optimum environments which are inferred by less than unit regression.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Growth Regulators and Organics on Growth and Yield of Spiny Brinjal Variety VRM (Br) -1

S. Nanthakumar, C. Pravin Kumar, P. Thilagam

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 222-229
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430771

Two field experiments were carried out at Horticultural College, Kalavai to study the effect of growth regulators and organics on growth and yield of spiny brinjal (Solanum melongena) var.VRM-1. Growth regulators viz., Salicylic acid @ 200 ppm, Brassinosteriods  @ 0.1 ppm, Triacontanol @ 5 ppm and NAA @ 40 ppm and organics viz., Seaweed extract @ 1.0%, Humic acid @ 1.0%, Panchagavya @ 5.0% and Vermiwash @ 5.0% were tested and applied as foliar spray in spiny brinjal var VRM-1. Among the treatments tested, Panchagavya treatment recorded maximum value with regard to plant height (85.45 cm), leaf area (131.59 cm),  leaf area index (3.66), branches per plant (21.3 Nos) , flowers per plant (55.5 Nos), fruits per plant (20.9 Nos), fruit length (5.8 cm), fruit circumference (14.7 cm)  and individual fruit weight (82.1 g). Brassinosteroids treatment found to be effective in increasing root length (22.75 cm).

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Long Term Fertilization and Manures on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties of Udorthentic Chromusterts

V. Venkatesh, N. Chandra Sekaran, V. Sanjivkumar, S. Meena, K. T. Parthiban

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 230-239
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430772

To study the effect of different nutrient management practices on different soil physical and chemical properties in the permanent manurial experiment field of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, which was established during 1982 at Agriculture Research Station, Kovilpatti. Soil physical and chemical properties are mainly affected by the continuous application of fertilizers or manures from years together. To study the above mentioned properties of soil the soil samples were collected from the permanent manurial experiment of kovilpatti where the Randomized Block Design (RBD) was followed with nine different treatments viz., T1- Control; T2- 100 % RDF (40:20:40 NPK kg ha-1); T3- 50% RDF (20:10:20 NPK kg ha-1); T4- 50% N (Crop residues); T5- 50 % N (FYM); T6- 50 % Inorganic N+ 50% organic N (crop residues) + P (50%) + K (50%) ; T7- 50 % Inorganic N+ 50% organic N (FYM) + P (50%) + K (50%); T8- 100 % RDF + 25 kg ZnSO4 ha-1; T9- FYM - 12.5 t ha-1. The effect of these treatments along with the depth (0-15 cm; 15-30 cm and 30-45 cm) was compared. The treatment receiving organics viz., T9- FYM - 12.5 t ha-1 was observed to be the best in all the physical and chemical properties which was then followed by INM viz.,  T7- 50 % Inorganic N+ 50% organic N (FYM) + P (50%) + K (50%) and T6- 50 % Inorganic N+ 50% organic N (crop residues) + P (50%) + K (50%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Nutrients on Root Architecture, Soil Microbial Biomass and Yield on Low Land Rice Ecosystem

V. R. Senthamizhkumaran, P. Santhy, D. Selvi, T. Kalaiselvi, K. G. Sabarinathan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 240-250
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430773

To study the impact of vermicompost, arbuscular mycorrhizae and FYM application on the rice ecosystem at low land, a field experiment was conducted with rice CO(R) 51 at the Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University in Coimbatore during the winter of 2020. The experiment was framed in Randomized Block Design comprising of 8 treatments viz., Recommended Dose of Fertilizer Soil Test Crop Response approach (T1), RDF 75 % + Farm Yard Manure @ 12.5 t ha-1 (T2), T2 + Seed treatment with Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria + Soil application of AM fungi (T3), RDF 75 % + Vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1 (T4), T4 + Seed treatment with Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria + Soil application of AM fungi (T5), FYM @ 12.5 t ha-1 + Seed treatment with Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria + Soil application of AM fungi (T6), Vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1+ Seed treatment with Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria + Soil application of AM fungi (T7) and Absolute control (T8) and replicated thrice. The maximum microbial population were registered in the plots that received integrated nutrient application of RDF 75 % STCR approach + Vermicompost 5 t ha-1 + seed treatment with Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria + Soil application of AM fungi. Rice root architecture has changed significantly as a result of mycorrhizal inoculation. Mycorrhizal rice plants have more root volume, length, and spread than plants without mycorrhizae. Nutrient retention and availability influenced the presence of microbial-mediated metabolic activities and nutrient transformations during crop growth. Bacteria, fungus, and actinomycetes became less abundant as the crop reached harvest. The population density of mycorrhizospheres that utilize both organic and inorganic fertilizers is higher. The treatments that received Vermicompost or FYM with Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae and Nitrogen, Phosphorous & Potassium fertilizers obtained the highest yields of rice grain and straw (6740 and 7840 kg ha-1) respectively, and it was clear that the combination of Vermicompost or FYM, VAM and along with NPK fertilizers produced significantly higher yields than their individual applications and absolute control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Zinc (Zn) and Iron (Fe) Fertilization for Improving the Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Biochemical Constituents in Capsicum Hybrids

Prakash Ranjan Behera, T. Chitdeshwari, P. Malarvizhi, U. Sivakumar, P. Irene Vethamoni

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 251-261
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430774

Micronutrients, particularly Iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn), play a vital role in the growth and development of plants due to their catalytic effect on many metabolic processes. However, the biochemical responses to the applied micronutrients vary with cultivars and their species. A screening experiment was conducted during 2020 to know the antioxidants enzyme activities and biochemical constituents in response to iron and zinc fertilization by six capsicum hybrids grown in grow bags under shade net conditions. The experiment consists of three treatments viz., Control (No Fe & Zn), 50 kg FeSO4 and 37.5 kg ZnSO4 ha-1 as a basal soil application with six capsicum hybrids viz., Indra, Priyanka, Inspiration, Massilia, Bachata, and Local green. Leaf samples of the capsicum hybrids were collected at Fruiting stage and analysed for antioxidant enzyme activities. The fruit samples were used for quantifying the biochemical constituents. The results revealed that, application of ferrous sulphate (FeSO4) and zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) to capsicum hybrids increased the biochemical constituents in fruits and the antioxidant enzyme activities in leaves. Out of the six hybrids tested, Indra possessed higher ascorbic acid content (9.20 mg 100 g-1 fresh weight), acidity (6.0), and total soluble solids (6.10 Brix) in the fruits, which was followed by Inspiration and Bachata. The superoxide dismutase (6.70 unit’s mg-1 protein) and peroxidase (6.90 unit’s g-1 fresh weight) activities were also higher with the same genotypes. The biochemical constituents and antioxidant  enzyme  response to Zn addition was better than Fe.  There was 13.2, 10.9 and 9.5 per cent increase in titratable acidity, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid content in the fruits of Indra due to ZnSO4 application.The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering revealed that Indra is highly responsive to Zn and Fe fertilization, while the local green showed very less response. The rest of the genotypes such as Inspiration, Bachata, Massilia, and Priyanka, are medium responsive for Zn and Fe fertilization.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Boron and Zinc on the Growth and Yield Parameters of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in Nalanda District

U. N. Umesh, Kumari Vibha Rani, Jyoti Sinha

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 262-268
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430775

The field experiment was carried out to overcome the poor growth and yield of tomato due to imbalance use of fertilizer and micronutrient deficiency. The objective to conduct this experiment was soil application of micronutrients alongwith nitrogen, phosphorus and potash for growth and yield enhancement. The maximum 90.39 cm plant height,the heighest 14.38 number of branches,the maximum 29.50 number of fruits per plant, heighest fruir weight per plant 2.46 kg per plant with yield of 518.25 quintal per heactare in case of technology option three application of 120.80.80 kg N:P:K ha-1 alongwith 10kg zinc and 1 kg boron per hectare as basal dose in comparision to other treatments. The lowest 80.45 cm plant height, least number of branches per plant 8.13,lesser number of fruit per plant 24.13, least fruit weight 2.18 kgper plant with minimum yield of 450.50 quintal per hectare was recorded in control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Levels of Irrigation on Yield and Yield Attributes of Winter Marigold Crop (Tagetes erecta L.)

Jeet Raj, Jitendra Sinha

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 269-275
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430777

Agriculture has been indispensable for the subsistence of the people of India in general and farmers in particular. It has naturally been the cornerstone of the Indian economy since time immemorial and agriculture has played a major role in the country's economy since its inception. The research work was done to study the effect of irrigation levels on the yield and growth of winter marigolds. Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) had been taken twice the winter season of 2019-20 and 2020-21. The average flower yield (t/ha) was recorded under the treatment I1 (12.03 t/ha) was found maximum and it was followed by I2 (10.51 t/ha), I3 (9.73 t/ha). The consumptive water use (CWU) was found maximum (26.62 cm) in 100% of ETc and the lowest CWU was found (21.03 cm) in 80% of ETc through a drip system of irrigation in the cropping year 2020-21. Similarly, in 2019-20 CWU was found maximum (18.02 cm) in 100% of ETc, while the lowest CWU was found (14.42 cm) in 80% of ETc. The water use efficiency was found highest in I3 (0.77 t/ha/cm) and minimum WUE was found in I2 (0.525 t/ha/cm) in the cropping year 2019-20. For 2020-21, a maximum WUE was recorded in I2 (0.497 t/ha/cm) and the minimum WUE in I3 (0.335 t/ha/cm).

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Foliar Application of Nano Nitrogen, Zinc and Copper on Yield and Nutrient Uptake of Rice

P. Chandana, K. R. Latha, C. R. Chinnamuthu, P. Malarvizhi, A. Lakshmanan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 276-282
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430778

A field experiment was conducted during spring 2020-21 at Wetland farms of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to study the effect of foliar Nanonutrients (N, Zn and Cu) application on the yield and nutrient uptake by rice at harvest. Twelve treatments with three replications were laid out in randomized complete block design. The results revealed that application of 100% NPK + Nano N at active tillering (T3) and 75% N + 100% PK + Nano N at active tillering (T4) increased the grain yield (5112 and 5063 kg ha-1) and N uptake (106.48 and 89.51 kg ha-1) of rice, respectively and was on par with 100% NPK + Nano Zn at active tillering and panicle emergence (T10). However, significantly higher Zn and Cu uptake were recorded in 100% NPK + Nano Zn at active tillering and panicle emergence (T10, 457.61 g ha-1) and 100% NPK + Nano Cu at active tillering and panicle emergence (T12, 92.36 g ha-1), respectively which was followed by 100% NPK + Nano N at active tillering (T3, 372.45 and 81.51 g ha-1) and 75% N + 100% PK + Nano N at active tillering (T4, 355.41 and 84.13 g ha-1). Thus, it can be concluded that application of foliar Nano N at active tillering along with soil application of either 100% NPK or 75% N + 100% PK can provide better results in terms of grain yield and nutrient uptake.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Yield and Yield Contributing Traits in Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench]

P. Vinoth, B. Selvi, N. Senthil, K. Iyanar, S. Jeyarani, V. Santhiya

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 283-288
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430779

Knowledge about the association between grain yield and yield contributing traits is important for sorghum development programs. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine correlations and path-coefficients between grain yield per plant and yield contributing traits. The experiment was conducted during Kharif 2019 in the Department of millets, TNAU, Coimbatore, India by using nine parents and twenty hybrids to study the genotypic correlations on the basis of seventeen traits.  Analysis of variance evinced significant variation for all the traits under study. In correlation studies, the grain yield was positively associated with plant height (0.603), leaf length (0.613), leaf area index (0.501), flag leaf length (0.529), panicle length (0.608), panicle weight (0.930) and hundred seed weight (0.643). In path analysis, the traits leaf length, flag leaf length, panicle length, panicle weight and hundred seed weight exposed highly direct and indirect effects. Selection for a trait is effective when both the correlation and direct effect are higher and positive as this indicates its true association. Hence this investigation revealed flag leaf length, panicle length, panicle weight and hundred seed weight exhibited positive association and direct effect on grain yield, which indicates that the selection towards these characters will improve the yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

GIS-based Fertility Assessment and Mapping for Agricultural Research Station, Tandur, Telangana, India

Kasthuri Rajamani, C. Sudhakar, N. Hari, M. Venkata Ramana

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 289-296
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430780

This study was conducted to determine the soil fertility status of the Agricultural Research Station, Tandur of Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University (PJTSAU), Vikarabad District, Telangana. To identify the soil sampling points, GPS device was used and collected total of 60 soil samples on grid-based method at a depth of 0–15 cm. The collected samples were analyzed for pH, EC, OC, N, P2O5, K2O, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn status by following standard methods in the laboratory of Regional Agricultural Research Station, Palem, PJTSAU, Nagarkurnool District of Telangana, and Arc-GIS software was used further to prepare soil fertility maps. Around 37.5% of samples fall in neutral pH, whereas 62.5% samples were found as moderately alkaline reactions and entire farm soils were non-saline. Among the analyzed soil samples, 37.29% samples were in low organic carbon content, and rest of the samples i.e.,62.71% have medium organic carbon content and total samples were low in available N content (< 280 kg ha-1). The analyzed farm samples were medium to high in available phosphorus and potassium (28.67 & 71.33 % of P2O5 and 16.96 & 83.04 % of K2O respectively) content. In contrast, the micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Fe & Mn) exceeded their sufficiency level and suggested for amelioration measures to enhance research efficacy in the farm and to build future research strategies based on the determined soil fertility status.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Biodegradable Polymer Coated Urea on Nitrogen Uptake and Utilization of Maize (Zea mays L)

B. Balaganesh, P. Malarvizhi, N. Chandra Sekaran, P. Jeyakumar, K. R. Latha, A. Lakshmanan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 297-306
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430781

Controlled release nitrogen fertilizers could be an excellent management approach for improving nitrogen fertilizer efficiency. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of coated urea fertilizers to increase nitrogen uptake and utilization of maize. The nitrogen use efficiency of maize from various biodegradable polymer-coated urea fertilizers, such as palm stearin coated urea (PSCU), pine oleoresin coated urea (POCU), and humic acid coated urea (HACU), was determined in a pot culture experiment conducted at the Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, during 2021. The coating materials have been coated on urea with different coating thicknesses, viz., PSCU - 5, 10, 15%, POCU – 2, 4, 6%, and HACU - 5, 10, 15%. Among all the treatments, T11: HACU 15% produced highest grain yield (72.0g plant-1) followed by T7: POCU 4% (69.7 g plant-1) and T4: PSCU 10% (69.0g plant-1). In terms of dry matter production, T10: PSCU 10% produced maximum dry matter (186.5g plant-1), followed by T11: HACU 15% (186.2 g plant-1), and T7: POCU 4% (185.3g plant-1). The nitrogen uptake by the maize plant was higher in T7: POCU 4 % (1.62g plant-1), followed by T11: HACU 15% (1.59 g plant-1) and T4: PSCU 10% (1.59g plant-1). Irrespective of treatments, the highest nitrogen utilization by the maize crop was found in T7: POCU 4% (73.9%) followed by T4: PSCU 10% (71.1%) and T11: HACU 15% (70.9%) treatments. When compared to uncoated urea fertilizer, all coated urea fertilizers outperformed uncoated urea fertilizer in terms of grain yield, dry matter accumulation, and nitrogen uptake. To improve the nitrogen use efficiency, coated urea fertilizers prove to be a promising alternative to uncoated urea fertilizers.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Influence of Basalt Powder on the Physicochemical Properties of Impoverished Oxisoils from Ngaoundéré (Adamawa - Cameroon)

Dalil Adoulko, Simon Djakba Basga, Rigobert Tchameni, Jean Pierre Nguetnkam

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 307-315
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430782

The present study aims at assessing the fertilizing potential of basalts on impoverished oxisoils from Ngaoundéré (Adamawa, Cameroon). This specifically involves the application of finely ground basalts on impoverished oxisoils and monitoring changes in physicochemical properties during six months. An experimental design which consisted in a randomized complete block design is constituted of three series of four treatments each one: the control (ST), the control soil mixed with 100 g of finely ground basalt (T0 + BA_10), the control soil mixed with 200 g of finely ground basalt (T0 + BA_20), the control soil mixed with 300 g of finely ground basalt (T0 + BA_30). Each treatment was replicated ten times in every serie. The control treatment is only soils of Ng, collected at the top soil and without any basalt application. They are clayey, acid and display an average CEC. The basalt is rich in silica (47.52%), Calcium (8.22%), Magnesium (4.03%), sodium (4.01%), potassium (2.42%) and displays average content in alumina (16.54%) and iron (11.1%). The experiment was carried out in pots, and the incubated soil samples were analyzed after 0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 months. The analyzes mainly focused on the physicochemical parameters (Grain size analysis, pH, Cation exchange capacity (CEC), the sum of exchangeable bases (SBE) and the saturation rate (V). Obtained results indicated that the application of basalt greatly improved the chemical properties of oxisoils from Ngaoundéré: the pH changes from acidic (5.5) to weakly acidic (6.5); the saturation rate, as well as the sum of exchangeable bases and the cation exchange capacity increased. Physicochemical properties of the soil are closely accompanied by an increase in fertility. It appears that 10 and 20% treatments are the most efficient treatments. Thus, the basalts from Manwi can be recommended as petrofertilizer to improve the chemical properties of impoverished soils and especially for plants requiring alkalis and alkaline earth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Halo Tolerance of Biocontrol Agents against Root Rot of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek var. radiata) Caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid in Salt Affected Soils

P. T. Sharavanan, V. K. Satya, M. Rajesh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 316-326
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430784

Root rot of mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek var. radiata] is major disease and claims huge yield loss if they occur in the field. The pathogen is basically soil borne and survivability may vary depends on soil condition. The fungicide chemicals are available to manage the disease; however, the biocontrol agents are nowadays available for the disease management and the microbial activity of the biocontrol agents is influenced by existing soil condition including soil pH. Hence, a study was conducted to find out the halo tolerance capacity of the biocontrol agents against root rot disease in salt affected soils under in vitro, in vivo and field condition. The root rot pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina was isolated from infected root. Efficacy of biocontrol agents against growth of M. phaseolina was assessed in vitro. The results revealed that TNAU strain of Bacillus subtilis reduced the mycelial growth of the M. phaseolina significantly when media supplemented with NaCl at 5% (1.4 cm), 7.5% (1.5 cm), 10% (1.6cm) and 12.5% (1.6 cm) and without NaCl (1.2 cm) and similar trend of reduction also expressed by BCA1 strain of B. subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma viride under in vitro. The performance of the biocontrol agents against the pathogen is slightly reduced when media supplemented with NaCl. The reduction of mycelia weight of M.phaeolina was more in media added with TNAU strain of B.subtilis and the performance of TNAU strain of B.subtilis on reduction of mycelial weight of M.phaseolina is reduced when the broth added with NaCl at 5% (3.15g), 7.5% (3.25g), 10% (3.32g) and 12.5%(3.65g) level and which is followed by P. fluorescens, BCA 1 strain of B. subtilis and Trichoderma viride. Under pot culture conditions, the effect of talc formulated biocontrol agents and challenge inoculation with pathogen was assessed against root rot incidence. It was found that the soil application of TNAU strain of B.subtilis performed better in reducing the root rot incidence at pH of 7.0 (2.37%), 7.5 (4.50%), 8.0 (5.53%) and 8.7 (6.57%) and followed by BCA 1 of B.subtilis in all pH level. Among the biocontrol agents, TNAU strain of B.subtilis applied as seed as well as soil application expressed more population in the rhizosphere in all pH level. The biocontrol agents applied as soil application had more populations of the agents in the soil when compared to seed treatment. The halo tolerance performance of the biocontrol agents was also assessed under field condition in pH of 7.5 and 8.7 during 2019-20 and 2020-21. It was found that the minimum root rot incidence and maximum yield was observed from soil application of TNAU strain of B subtilis at 2.5 kg/ha but the effect is on par with soil application of BCA1 strain of B.subtilis at 2.5 kg/ha.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Organic Manure and Azotobacter on Quality and Leaf Nutrient Status of Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) Cv. Winter Dawn

G. Chandramohan Reddy, R. K. Goyal, A. K. Godara

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 327-332
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430785

The field experiment was conducted during two subsequent years, i.e., 2017-18 and 2018-19 at the Department of Horticulture, Hisar with aim to study the effect of organic manures and Azotobacter on quality and leaf nutrient status of strawberry cv. Winter Dawn under hi-tech greenhouse conditions of Haryana. In this experiment, organic manures in combination with biofertilizers comprised of nine treatments, viz., T1: Sand: FYM (3:1), T2: Sand: FYM (2:1), T3: Sand: Vermicompost (3:1), T4: Sand: Vermicompost (2:1), T5: Sand: FYM (3:1) + Azotobacter, T6: Sand: FYM (2:1) + Azotobacter, T7: Sand: Vermicompost (3:1) + Azotobacter. T8: Sand: Vermicompost (2:1) + Azotobacter and T9: Control (Sand); were tested as potting media in complete randomized block design. Maximum TSS, ascorbic acid, anthocyanin content and minimum acidity content and leaf with maximum N, P and K content were observed under sand: vermicompost (2:1) + Azotobacter in comparison to the other treatments. The results of this experiment revealed that, the combination of sand: vermicompost (2:1) with Azotobacter showed significant influence on leaf nutrient content of strawberry and produced better results with respect to quality of strawberry fruits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Stability of TGMS Hybrids in Dry Direct Seeded Rice

N. S. Rudresh, P. Jayamani, E. Vijayakumar, S. Manonmani, Mahantesh Gangashetti, P. Jeyakumar, K. R. Latha

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 333-341
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430786

Rice is a water-loving crop and traditionally sown in the nursery and then transplanted to the puddled and waterlogged main field. Owing to climate change, water scarcity and labour shortage problems, rice is now cultivated in the dry direct seeded method. Owing to potential of hybrid rice in increasing both rice production and productivity, many countries are focusing on exploiting the benefits of this technology. To break the yield plateau in rice cultivation, Thermosensitive Genetic Male Sterile (TGMS) hybrids were found to be very effective. In the present study, 41 TGMS hybrids and 9 checks were evaluated for their stability and adaptability by dry direct seeded method in four locations viz., E1 - Allahabad, E2 - Lucknow, E3 - Dhamtari and E4 - Raipur. The TGMS hybrid G44 was predicted as an ideal hybrid by the GGE stability model that possessed high grain yield and stable performance over environments. It was followed by hybrids viz., G10, G14, G34, G11, G20 and G47 that had a stable performance with high yield. Hence, these TGMS hybrids were identified as high and stable yielders across environments and suitable for dry direct seeded rice ecosystems. Among the environments, E1 (Allahabad) and E4 (Raipur) were considered favourable environments as they possessed the highest discriminating power. The hybrids identified in the study can be utilized for breaking the yield barriers in rice and can be recommended for dry direct seeding in marginal and rainfed areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Existence of Vivipary in Mango (Mangifera indica cv. ‘Amrapali’) – A Report

Shashi K. Sharma

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 342-349
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430787

Aim: The Amrapalii cultivar of mango is known for its dwarf stature, high productivity and ability to capture the market late when mango from other regions of the country gets over.  Vivipary is of unusual occurrence in mango. The aim of the study is to report the occurrence of vivipary in mango especially in cultivar Amrapali under the sub-Himalayan subtropics of India.

Materials and Methods: Incidental occurrence of vivipary in mango has been reported from the Hamirpur district of Himachal Pradesh during the growing season of the year 2021. Upon observance of abnormal protuberances from the fruit surface, the harvesting was commenced at the weekly intervals and the per cent proportion of viviparous fruits was ascertained by cutting the fruits longitudinally and confirming the viviparous germination of the seeds. Weather data of the fruit development state were analysed for the accumulation of heat units and rainfall distribution. Efforts have been made for ascertaining the reason behind the viviparous seed development.

Results and Discussion: The proportion of viviparous seeds increased with the progression of time and by the mid of September, more than 12% of seeds were found viviparous. The weather data show that there was an early accumulation of heat units. Also, the rainfall during the period of fruit development was high particularly at the time when fruits were advancing toward maturity.

It has been observed that the seed maturity has preceded the fruit pulp maturity and ripening may be due to the early accumulation of heat units and high rainfall. This coincidence might have resulted in precocious germination of seed inside the fruit, leading to vivipary.

Conclusion: The development of vivipary in Amrapali mango has been found to be associated with the early accumulation of heat units and high rainfall. Under the current changing climatic scenario, a need has been projected for strategic research for curtailing vivipary incidences and saving economic losses to the growers of late mango varieties in the sub-Himalayan subtropics. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Geospatial Distribution of Iron in Major Sugarcane Growing Soils of Sivagangai, Tamil Nadu, India

K. Chandrasekar, J. Prabhaharan, P. P. Mahendran, P. Saravana Pandiyan, A. Gurusamy, R. P. Gnanamalar, P. Kannan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 350-364
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430788

The present study was undertaken to assess the available DTPA iron status in the major sugarcane growing soils of Southern Sivangai district, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 500 geo referenced surface (0-30 cm) were collected from five blocks viz., Kalaiyarkovil, Padamathur, Sivagangai, Thiruppachetty and Thiruppuvanam and analyzed for basic soil properties and available DTPA iron. Simple correlation was worked out to ascertain the degree of relationship between soil properties and available DTPA iron content of soil study area. The available DTPA iron in the entire sugarcane growing soils ranged from 2.95 to 5.79 mg kg-1, 2.11 to 4.31 mg kg-1, 3.49 to 5.59 mg kg-1, 1.99 to 5.66 mg kg-1 and 3.94 to 6.39 mg kg-1 in soil samples of Kalaiyarkovil, Padamathur, Sivagangai, Thiruppachetty and Thiruppuvanam respectively. In the soil samples from Kalaiyarkovil, Padamathur, Sivagangai, Thiruppachetty, and Thiruppuvanam, the results revealed that 52, 59, 55, 53, and 51 % of the soils were deficient in available iron and 33, 29, 35, 30 and 32 % of the soils were moderate in available iron, and 15, 12, 10,5 and 17 % of the soils were sufficient in available iron. As per the nutrient index study, the soils of study area recorded very low to low fertility rating for available iron and the mean nutrient index value (NIV) ranged from 1.42 to 1.64 in the soil of the study area. SOC and CEC were found to have a beneficial impact on iron availability, whereas EC and CaCO3 levels had a negative impact on DTPA iron availability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Sowing Methods and Sowing Time on Growth, Growth Attributes and Yield of Black Gram Vigna mungo L. under Rice Oryza sativa L. Fallow Black Gram Cropping System

Paulraj Suryakala, A. Veeramani, Durai Singh, T. Sivakumar, M. Rajeswari, P. Prema

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 365-374
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430789

Aim: Blackgram is one of the most important pulse crops raised in several types of soil under well drained conditions. Currently, it is cultivated as monocrop , intercrop as well as rice fallow crop in southern India. When the rice fallow pulse systems are described as, the pulse crop is seeded before or after rice harvest without ploughing, the remaining soil moisture may be better used through conservation agriculture measures. It's also known as a relay crop, a no-till crop, or a residual crop.In general, the production and productivity of black gram is declining because of poor management practices . Thus, this study was undertaken rice establishment methods as a strategy to determine the availability of residual moisture on the establishment of rice fallow black gram system during the early growth stages.

Place and Duration of Study: A field investigation was carried out at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai (Tamil Nadu Agricultural University9o54’ N Latitude, 78o54’ E Longitude with an  altitude of 147 m above MSL), Tamil Nadu, India from September 2019 to April 2020

Methodology: To see how different seeding methods and time influence the rice fallow black gram, the factors include rice planting methods as the main plot, methods of sowing black gram on rice fallow black gram as  sub plot, and time of sowing black gram on rice fallow black gram given out in sub-sub plot treatment.

Results: The treatments had the best growth qualities, growth analysis, and yield. It could be because the above-mentioned combinations had higher residual moisture content, which resulted in a higher germination percentage, better crop stand, and higher growth and yield of rice fallow black gram.

Conclusion: The best management strategy is to sowing black gram in rice fallow situations with a rice fallow pulse planter at 10 days before rice harvest, under the direct seeded of rice establishment technique with drum seeder.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Fertilization Based on Chicken Manures and Mycorrhiza on Vegetative Parameters and Phenological Stages of Sorghum bicolor in Yagoua, Far-North Cameroon

Bertrand Wang-Bara, Philémon Kaouvon, Jacques Djida Housseini, Sounou Paul Alioum, Dieudonné Danra Djackba

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 375-383
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430791

Aims: Study aims to evaluate the effect of chicken manure and mycorrhiza levels as fertilizers on vegetative growth and on phenological stages of Sorghum in Far North Cameroon.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the Valorization Station of Agricultural Research (PSAR) of Yagoua.

Methodology: For this study, variety S-35 of Sorghum have used. Three levels of fertilization were used to evaluate germination rates, vegetative growth and phenology of this variety. The levels of fertilizers applied were 20 g of mycorrhiza, 50 g of organic manure and 20+50g of effect combined mycorrhiza+organic manure in comparison to the check (0g). The experimental design was the randomized block design with 3 replications. After evaluation of germination rates in the farm, we had evaluated the height, diameters and precocity of plants.

Results: Uses of different levels of fertilization on germination rates were important for all the levels of fertilizers compared to the control (27. 5 %). It’s varying from 52.5 % for the chicken manure, followed by the effect of combined treatments (45 %) and bio-fertilizers with 67 %. Compared to the check, the use of chicken manure as fertilization was most significant (P<0.05) on the height of plants during the vegetative growth. The diameters of plants according to the different treatments were most significant (P<0.05) respectively by the supplies of chicken manure, the effect of both treatments (mycorrhiza+chicken manure) and mycorrhiza treatment. Theses different levels fertilization was influenced the phenological stages of plants especially first flowering of plants days after sowing. Flowering of plants at 50 % was most favorable for the treatments based on the uses chicken manure and the combined effect of treatments (mycorrhiza+chicken manure).

Conclusion: Uses of chicken manure and mycorrhiza as fertilizers on Sorghum were significant to the vegetative growth and flowering stages of plants. Levels of chicken manure had positive effect on plant height. Plants diameters were most positively affected by organic manure, mycorrhiza and the effect of both treatments during growing of plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Different Herbicide Based Weed Management Practices on Growth and Yield of Flue Cured Tobacco in Northern Light Soils of Andhra Pradesh, India

M. N. V. A. Uma Mahesh, K. Srinivasan, C. R. Chinnamuthu, S. Shanmugasundaram, C. N. Chandrasekhar, P. Srinivas

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 384-390
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430792

Flue cured tobacco requires clean and weed free environment and thereby reduce the competition for nutrients and moisture for achieving quick early season growth. Deploying effective weed management practices play a key role in achieving better yields and quality. Field experiments were conducted at Peddpauram village of West Godavari district (Andhra Pradesh) during (Rabi) seasons of 2018-19 and 2019-20, to study the effect of different herbicide based weed management practices on growth and yield of flue cured Tobacco crop. The experiment was performed as Randomized Block Design with 11 weed management practices replicated thrice. The results recorded on growth parameters, in both the years revealed that six inter cultivations with two manual removal of weeds significantly impacted plant height (113.5 cm and 114.4 cm) and leaf area index (2.63 and 2.83) at 90 DAT over Imazethapyr applied at 0.05 kg a.i ha-1. Number of leaves plant-1 were higher with six inter cultivation and two manual removal of weeds (21.5 and 20.6) over Imazethapyr 0.05 kg a.i ha-1. Inter cultivations and manual weeding resulted in significantly enhancing yield attributes such as leaf thickness (0.143 mm and 0.143 mm for cutters and 0.183 mm and 0.173 for leaf) and lower leaf count (Number of leaves kg-1) (137 and 129) over weedy check. Application of Sulfentrazone 0.03 kg a.i ha-1 was comparable with inter cultivation and manual weeding. Sulfentrazone 0.3 kg a.i ha-1 contributed for significantly higher yield (2302 kg ha-1 and 2424 kg ha-1) over weedy check and comparable with six inter cultivations and two manual weeding operations. The application of pre emergence herbicides like Pendimethalin, Alachlor and Oxyflurfen resulted achieving higher yield levels over the application of post emergence herbicides such as Quiazalofop-p-ethyl, Fenoxaprop ethyl, Carfentrazone ethyl and Imazethapyr during both years of experimentation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Lentil Genotypes against Highly Aggressive Strain of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis

Naila Tarannum, Anil Kumar, Ravi Ranjan Kumar, Anand Kumar, J. N. Srivastva, Nitish De

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 391-399
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430793

Lentil is one of the most nutritious pulse crops known as masur and grown as a rainfed crop throughout the world in winter season. It is rich in protein, starch, micronutrients and dietary fiber. In the global scenario, India ranked first in the area and second in the production with Bihar being one the major lentil growing state. The majority of the lentil crop is grown in Tal area of the state. As it is cultivated as a rainfed crop, it gets severely affected by several biotic and abiotic stresses. Among the biotic stresses, Fusaium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis (Fol) is one of the major fungal diseases and remarkably causing severe crop damage from vegetative to reproductive stage producing significant yield reduction. Fol isolate exhibit great variability and aggressiveness based on agro- climatic conditions. AGLF-11 isolate of Fol collected from Tal area of Bihar was found to be highly aggressive based on previous studies. For this, 50 diverse genotypes were screened against this isolate under greenhouse condition, out of which 14 genotypes showed high susceptibility, 29 genotypes showed moderate susceptibility, 5 genotypes exhibited moderately resistance and only 2 genotypes (L 7920 and DPL 58) exhibited resistance reaction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diversity Analysis in Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) Accessions of Lower Pulney Hills of Tamil Nadu, India

V. Gopi, M. Ananthan, M. S. Aneesa Rani, M. Kumar, P. Jeyakumar, V. Krishnamoorthy

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 400-408
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430794

Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is one of the world's most important subtropical fruit crops. So far, it’s collection, systematic evaluation and utilization studies are limited and this would be perhaps the first systematic study to quantify the variability available. This investigation of genetic diversity would be a first in Tamil Nadu. Morphological diversity in qualitative and quantitative traits of avocado genotypes investigated in this study using the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute descriptors to evaluate twenty accessions. The traits evaluated were related to leaf, flowering, fruit, seed, and yield traits. The 20 genotypes were classified into ten groups using Mahalanobis statistics. PA-56 and PA-68, which differ in terms of characteristics and distance, might provide transgressive segregants upon curing to resistance desirable traits. Principal component analysis was done to assess the qualitative and quantitative characters combination. The total variability defined by the five PCs was 84.14 percent, whereas the variability of the 13 primary components was 99.99 percent. The genotypes that could be chosen based on PC values in each constituent graph that were positive and > 1.0 in each PC and a combination away that would unravel many genetic patterns.  Findings of this research will aid in germplasm management, conservation, and breeding strategies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Characterization of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria from Calcareous Soil

S. D. Gaikwad, P. A. Bhosale, P. V. Ukey, K. B. landage

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 409-417
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430795

The present investigation was conducted with aim to isolate and characterize phosphate solubilizing bacteria from calcareous soil. Four efficient PSB isolates were obtained from fourteen soil samples collected from different locations. Based on morphological and biochemical characterization, highly phosphate solubilizing isolates were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescence, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. The amount of Pi released from TCP by the isolates at 10 DAI ranged from 23.2 to 30.5 % and zone of solubilization recorded between 6 -13 mm. Among them PSB isolate 1 (Pseudomonas fluorescence) recorded highest Pi released from TCP broth i:e (30.5 %) and zone of solubilization recorded (13 mm) than the other isolates tested.

Open Access Original Research Article

Standard Heterosis for Grain Yield and its Attributing Traits in Early Maturing Maize Hybrids

Viqar-Un-Nisa ., Z. A. Dar, S. Naseer, M. H. Khan, A. A. Lone, M. A. Wani, M. A. Rather, A. M. I. Qureshi, Wajhat-Un-Nisa ., Bilal Ahmad Lone, Aflaq Hamid, Gowher Ali, Asma Fayaz, S. Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 418-421
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430796

The present study was conducted at the research farm of Dryland Agriculture Research Station, SKUAST-Kashmir during the kharif of 2019. Range of heterosis was calculated over standard check. The most desirable cross combinations viz., KDM-440 x KDM-914A (-5.879), KDM-440 x V-335 (-4.468), KDM-930 x V-351(-4.165), KDM-927A x V-335 (-3.986), CML-470 x KDM-914A (-3.808) for days to maturity, KDM-347 x V-351 (4.967) CML-470 x KDM-914A (4.610), CML-474 × V-351(-4.396), KDM-927 A x V-351 (-3.110), KDM-930 x V 335 (2.896) for number of kernel rows per cob, KDM-347 x V-351(-7.544), KDM-440 x V-351 (6.438), KDM-916A x KDM-914 A(6.117), CML-470 × V-351(5.992), CML-474 x V-335 (5.274) for number of kernels per row, KDM-340 x V-351 (3.966), KDM340 x KDM-914A (3.150), KDM-930 x V-351(3.165), KDM-440 x KDM-914 (3.556), KDM-347 x V-351(3.324) for 100-grain weight, KDM-347 x V351 (34.197), KDM-440 x V335 (28.933), CML470 x KDM-914A (29.380), KDM-895 x KDM914A (25.383), KDM927A x KDM-914A (19.549) for grain yield per plant were observed in the present study. The range of heterosis  over  standard check for days to maturity from -3.796 (CML-425 × KDM-914A) to (2.414) CML-474 × KDM-914A. The extent of heterosis for number of kernel rows per ear over standard check ranged from CML-470 x V-335(28.576) to KDM-916A × V -335(-2.143), for quantity of kernels per row maximum well known heterosis ranged from CML-470 × V-351 (19.079) to KDM-347 × V-351 (-15.132), for 100- grain weight, heterosis ranged from 22.3% for CML-470 x KDM-914 A  to -3.5% for KDM-916A × V-335. For grain yield per plant, heterosis ranged from 61.9% for CML-470 x K DM-914 A to 9.3% for KDM916A x V-335. Standard  heterosis for crosses CML -470 × KDM-914 A, CML-474 × V-351, KDM-440 × V-335 should be tested for multilocation to make valid conclusion related to their use in commercial maize cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Productivity of Aerobic Rice under Different Lateral Arrangement and Nutrient Management

Sanjay Kumar, Sanjay K. Dwivedi, Sarjeet Singh, Gharsiram ., Pradeep Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 422-428
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430797

An experiment to assess the “Productivity and economic feasibility of lateral arrangement and nutrient management in aerobic rice” was conducted at the Instructional-cum-Research Farm, I.G.K.V, Raipur, (C.G.) during kharif season of 2018. The soil of experimental field was clayey (Vertisols) in texture. The trial was laid out in strip plot design viz., horizontal strips consist of 3 lateral arrangements and vertical strips consist of 4 nutrient management with 12 treatment combinations. The treatments consisted of 3 lateral arrangements viz., M1- lateral at 25 cm (1 LPH/0.3 metre spacing), M2- lateral at 50 cm (2 LPH/0.3 metre spacing) and M3- conventional practice and 4 nutrient management of N1- 50 % RDF, N2 - 100 % RDF, N3 - 150 % RDF and N4 - STCR- based fertilizer recommendation. Aerobic rice variety Indira aerobic -1 was used for trial. The sowing was done on 20th June, 2018 at 20 cm of spacing and harvesting of crop was done on 7th October, 2018.

The results of trial revealed that the growth parameters like plant height (cm), number of leaves hill-1, dry matter accumulation hill-1 (g), number of tillers (m-2) and grain yield (t ha-1) were significantly higher under lateral arrangement at 25 cm (M1). However, lowest value of all these parameters were obtained in conventional practice (M3). Similarly, all these characters were also higher among nutrient management with application of STCR based fertilizer (N4). Remarkably, lowest values were obtained with application of 50 % RDF (N1).

Open Access Original Research Article

Assess the Financial Viability of Sapota Orchard in South Gujarat Region

Tushar Pakwar, Ashok Kumar Koshariya, Kedar Vijaykumar Swami, Alpesh K. Leua

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 429-436
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430798

Agriculture sector “continues to be the mainstay of our economy as it occupies the central place in rural life. The contribution of agriculture towards national income was about 22.1 percent in 2003-04 besides 64 per cent of population still depending on it. Financial analysis revealed that of 12 per cent discount rate, the sapota enterprises has maximum NPV (Rs. 324309.00 and Rs. 340183.78), BCR (6.18 per cent and 6.49 percent), PBP (6.4 and 6.1 years) and IRR (34 per cent and 37 percent) in Valsad and Navsari district respectively. As sapota is a market oriented crop, on an average about 99 percent of production was marketed, while negligible portion was utilized for other purposes. Majority of farmers about 65 percent of sapota was disposed to co -operative society. The producer to co-operative society to wholesaler - cum-commission agent to retailer to consumer was the major marketing channel as more than 65 per cent of sapota moved through this route. ”The total marketing cost incurred by sapota growers amounted to Rs. 93.25 per quintal in which transportation cost ranked first Rs. 20.00, followed by, Loading and Unloading Charges cost Rs. 5.00, commission charge Rs. 58.25 Weighing Cost Rs. 2.50”. The total expenses incurred by co -operative society, post harvest contractor, wholesaler -cum-commission agent and retailer were Rs. 121.00, Rs. 174.95, Rs. 133.90 and Rs. 130.35 per quintal of sapota, respectively. The producer's share in consumer's rupee was 21.72 percent in sapota. Price spread 78. 23 percent in” sapota.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variability, Character Association and Path Analysis for Yield and its Related Traits in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes

S. K. Singh, Pooja Singh, Amrutlal Ratilal Khaire, Mounika Korada, D. K. Singh, Prasanta Kumar Majhi, S. Jayasudha

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 437-446
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430799

Assessment of variability and trait associations in a crop helps to enhance selection efficiency. With this objective, a study was conducted to estimate the genetic variability, character association and path coefficient analysis for grain yield and its component traits in 80 rice genotypes during Kharif-2020. Eighty genotypes including eight checks were evaluated in alpha lattice design with three replications. For all of the traits studied, the results revealed significant variance in all genotypes.PCV was found to be slightly more than the corresponding GCV for all the characters, indicating the role of environment in the expression of these traits. However, high GCV and high PCV were observed for number of effective tillers, grain yield per plot, number of filled grains per panicle, number of unfilled grains per panicle, biomass yield, harvest index, grain yield per plant and grain yield per hectare. Furthermore, all of the variables investigated had strong heritability and high genetic progress as a percentage of mean, with the exception of days to 50% blooming, days to maturity, and kernel breadth. Days to first flowering, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, spikelet fertility percentage, number of filled grains per panicle, harvest index and kernel length showed a significant and positive association with grain yield per plot. Highest direct contribution to grain yield per plot was manifested by kernel length, harvest index and spikelet fertility percent. Days to first flowering, days to maturity, number of effective tillers, number of unfilled grains per panicle, test weight, biomass yield were also found to exert a positive effect on yield, thus can be considered as desirable traits for selection in high yielding genotypes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Drought Tolerant Rice Breeding Lines of an Elite Indian Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Variety Improved White Ponni through Molecular Breeding

F. D. Prisca Seeli, S. Manonmani, M. Raveendran, P. Jeyakumar, R. Pushpam

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 447-457
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430800

Changes in climatic conditions especially unpredictable drought occurrences are challenging for food security. The present investigation was carried out to improve the grain yield in Improved White Ponni (IWP) rice under reproductive stage drought stress. This variety is well known for its grain quality. Physiological changes, grain yield and related traits under drought were evaluated in the advanced breeding lines of Improved White Ponni X Apo containing qDTY 3.1. The experiment was conducted at the Department of Rice, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural university, Coimbatore during 2020. Two superior backcross inbred lines of IWP X Apo, donor parent and recipient parent were raised under water stress in rain out shelter as well as in well irrigated conditions in replications. Soil moisture content was reduced to 12.7% in drought field showing the stress severity. Physiological parameters such as photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content and relative water content, Yield and related traits such as days to fifty percent flowering, productive tillers, spikelet fertility, grain yield and grain weight were recorded in the BILs and parents during flowering stages. Reduction was observed in all these traits under water stress. However, in comparison with IWP (94.6%) which lacks qDTY 3.1, BILs with qDTY 3.1 showed less reduction in grain yield (63%) and other traits. Earliness was also observed in qDTY 3.1 containing BILs under drought stress (BILs - 106 days, IWP-117 days) and controlled conditions (BILs- 83 days, IWP-107 days) when compared to IWP. Grain quality estimates in the BILs showed similarity to IWP. These BILs need to be evaluated further for confirmation of drought tolerance and they are effective resources for utilisation in drought breeding programmes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Fodder Maize (Zea mays L.) Cv. African Tall and its Response to Different Rates of FYM and Biofertilizers under Cold arid Conditions of Kargil

Raies A. Bhat, Faizan Ahmad, Tanveer Ahmad Ahngar, T. A. Shiekh, Zahida Rashid, Waseem Raja, Latief Ahmad, S. A. Hakeem, Mumtahin Ul Kousar, Roman Nissar, Z. A. Dar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 458-465
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430801

Fodder availability in cold arid regions is from 40 to 50 percent of real need, but in some areas it exceeds 50 percent [1]. Alfalfa, which is the sole fodder accessible to farmers and is dried and given to animals throughout the winter, is insufficient to meet the winter fodder shortfall. The region has a 73 percent fodder deficiency, according to reports [1]. The region's large fodder shortfall explains why the fodder development initiative is so important. Ladakh's freezing desert terrain has a lengthy, harsh winter that lasts 7-8 months and is devoid of any vegetation. During the winter, the entire animal rearing depends on the stored feed. Keeping these facts in view a field experiment entitled “Evaluation of fodder maize (Zea mays L.) Cv. African tall and its response to different rates of farmyard manure (FYM) and Biofertilizers under cold arid conditions of Kargil” was carried out at the research farm of Mountain Agriculture Research and Extension Station Kargil for the years 2015-16 and 2016-17 on silty clay loam soil low in available nitrogen and medium in available phosphorus and potassium with neutral pH. The experiment comprised of two factors viz., Bio fertilizers (B1: Azotobactor, B2: Phosphorus solubilising bacteria (PSB), B3: Azospirillium, B4: Azotobactor + PSB, B5: Azospirillium + PSB) and three FYM rates (R₁= 10 t ha⁻¹, R₂ =20 t ha⁻¹ and R₃ = 30 t ha⁻¹) was laid out in a Randomized block design replicated thrice, given nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium as per recommended package. The results revealed that highest plant height, number of leaves, stem girth and fodder yield were realized from the treatment comprising of FYM @30 t ha⁻¹ + Azotobactor + PSB treatment among all the treatments. Also crude protein and crude fibre were recorded to be higher with the treatment of FYM @30 t ha⁻¹ + Azotobactor + PSB.

Open Access Original Research Article

Residual Effect of Various Types of Vermicomposts on Growth and Yield of Green Gram (Vigna radiata L.) in Rice-pulses Cropping System

B. S. R. Niivedidhaa, N. Maragatham, N. Thavaprakaash, P. Santhy, M. Maheswari

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 466-473
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430802

The residual effect of vermicomposts applied on preceding rice crop to the succeeding greengram under the rice- pulses cropping system was studied. The experiment was conducted at the wetland farms, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore by following the randomized complete block design (RBD) with 11 treatments and replicated thrice. After harvest of rice, greengram was raised as residual crop. The treatments followed were vermicomposts prepared from Eudrilus eugeniae + paddy straw (T1), Eudrilus eugeniae + coconut wastes (T2), Eudrilus eugeniae + Vegetable wastes(T3), Eudrilus eugeniae + farm wastes(T4), Eudrilus eugeniae + farm yard manure (FYM) (T5), Eisenia foetida + pady straw(T6), Eisenia foetida + coconut wastes(T7), Eisenia foetida + vegetable wastes(T8), Eisenia foetida + farm wastes(T9), Eisenia foetida + farm yard manure (FYM) (T10) and absolute control (T11). The result indicated that there was a residual effect of vermicompost in the greengram crop after rice. The residual effect in the treatment T2 (Eudrilus eugeniae + coconut wastes) found superior on growth parameters of greengram viz., plant height, drymatter production (DMP) and number of pods plant-1 and on seed and haulm yields than all other treatments. The treatment T2 (Eudrilus eugeniae + coconut wastes) was comparable to the treatment T7 (Eisenia foetida + coconut wastes). The lower growth and yield were found in the treatment Absolute control (T11). Among the treatments, the coconut wastes with the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and Eisenia foetida performed well with better growth and yield of the greengram crop than the other wastes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Faba Bean Yield and Water Productivity as Affected by Irrigation and Intercropping Systems

Moshira A. El-Shamy, Amira A. Kasem, M. A. Mahmoud, Ibrahim Mohamed Abd El-Fattah

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 474-489
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430803

Irrigation with intensive intercropping, in water scarce region is evaluated and optimized. Water productivity (WP) is taken as an indicator and quantified. A field experiment was carried out in Sakha Agricultural Research Station in Egypt during 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 seasons. A split plot design was applied, main plots were devoted for irrigation treatments of two (I1), three (I2) and four (I3) irrigations. Whereas fennouil, red radish and brassica crops were intercropped with faba bean in the sub-plots. Results showed that the highest yield and yield attributes of faba bean were obtained from irrigation treatment of I3, faba bean with fennouil intercropping and the interaction between faba bean intercropping with fennouil and irrigation treatment of I3 in both seasons. Water consumptive use was increased by 17% and 24% after irrigation treatment of I2 and I3 compared to I1. Applied water were reduced by 21.6% and 8.2% for I1 and I2 compared to I3. The highest value of WP was obtained from the interaction between irrigation treatment I3 and faba bean with fennouil intercropping. It could be concluded that applying the interaction of I1 and faba bean with fennouil intercropping, because it saved significant amount of irrigation water and enhanced water productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Zinc Application Strategies on Growth and Yield of Soybean in Central India

Suwa Lal Yadav, Hitendra K. Rai, Indra Raj Yadav, Anil Kumar, Manju Choudhary

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 490-497
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430804

Fertilization of soybean with zinc (Zn) had received considerable attention in recent years due to world-wide spread of its deficiency in soils and also due to malnutrition in infants and children’s. Soybean is high nutrient exhausting crop but sensitive to zinc (Zn) deficiency in soil. Application of Zn fertilizers could be a viable option to fulfil this deficiency and also to promote yield and growth parameters. This experiment was conducted at Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur during kharif season of 2019 with fourteen treatments of zinc application strategies [(T1) Absolute control, (T2) recommended dose of fertilizer+ No Zn, (T3) RDF + 5.0 kg Zn ha-1, (T4) RDF + spray of 0.5% ZnSO4 at 35 DAS, (T5) RDF + spray of 0.5% ZnSO4 at 35 and 55 DAS, (T6) RDF + 5.0 kg Zn ha-1 + spray of 0.5% ZnSO4 at 35 DAS, (T7)  RDF + 5.0 kg Zn ha-1 + spray of 0.5% ZnSO4 at 35 and 55 DAS, (T8) RDF + Zn solubilizer as soil application, (T9) RDF + 5.0 kg Zn ha-1 + Zn solubilizer as soil application, (T10) RDF + Spray of 0.5% ZnSO4 and 150 ppm salicylic acid at 35 DAS, (T11) RDF + spray of 0.5% ZnSO4 and 150 ppm salicylic acid at 35 and 55 DAS, (T12) RDF + 5.0 kg Zn ha-1 + spray of 0.5% ZnSO4 and 150 PPM salicylic acid at 35 DAS, (T13) RDF + 5.0 kg Zn ha-1 + spray of 0.5% ZnSO4 and 150 ppm salicylic acid at 35 and 55 DAS and (T14) No RDF + 5.0 kg Zn ha-1] which were replicated three times in randomized block design(RBD). Results showed that growth parameters, yield attributes and yield of soybean were significantly affected by zinc application strategies. It was found that treatment of RDF + 5.0 kg Zn ha-1 + spray of 0.5% ZnSO4 + 150 ppm salicylic acid at 35 and 55 DAS (T13) had been found best in terms of growth, yield attributes and yield of soybean.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Compatibility and Efficacy Studies of Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsh.) with Commonly used Biorational and Chemical Pesticides against Spodoptera litura (Fabricius)

P. Udayababu, Sunil Zacharia

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 498-507
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430805

In vitro compatibility of selected entomopathogenic fungi with botanicals and chemical insecticides at field recommended concentrations Indoxacarb 14.5 SC, Spinosad 45 SC, neem oil and NSKE were non-toxic to the test strain M.anisopliae (Ma-L-1) as they did not show significant reduction in radial growth. The insecticide dichlorvos 76 EC (DDVP) recorded 100 per cent reduction in radial growth of test strains at field recommended concentration. The joint action of microbial agents (bacteria, viruses and fungi) revealed that the combination of pathogens did not prove superior to individual effect. All the combination of entomopathogenic fungi M. anisopliae (Ma-L-1) strain with microbial agents were within the critical limits of additive effect and combination with insecticides viz., Spinosad 45 SC @0.009%, neem oil 5% and NSKE 5%, which produced the synergism reaction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Metal Nutrient Distribution and Availability in Vegetable Growing Soils of Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu

K. Subash Chandra Bose, D. Selvi, T. Chitdeshwari, T. Saraswathi, D. Balachandar, P. Jeyakumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 508-515
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430806

Knowledge about distribution and bio availability of micronutrients is critically needed for better production of agricultural products both quantitatively and qualitatively. The study intended to evaluate the micronutrient status, availability and its interaction with soil properties in the vegetable ecosystem. This study looks at the availability of micronutrient metal cation with their diversified soil properties. A total number of 25 surface soil samples were collected from major vegetable growing areas and basic soil parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, clay, cation exchange capacity, and free CaCO3 were examined. Micronutrients, both total and accessible, were also determined in soil. Zn and Fe deficiencies were found to a tune of 36 and 24 percent respectively in the overall soil samples, respectively. Deficiencies in Mn and Cu were found in extremely small quantities. Calcareous soils contribute to 40% of the soils analysed. Among the different soil properties, pH and CaCO3 showed a significant negative impact on micronutrient bioavailability whereas organic carbon and clay enhances the availability of micronutrients. The total micronutrient was not significantly correlated with the bioavailability of their respective nutrients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Soil Drenching and Foliar Application of Biostimulants on Physiological and Quality Parameters in Curry Leaf (Murraya koenigii Spreng.)

M. Chinnapappa, A. Ramar, S. Manickam, S. Velmurugan, V. Ravichandran, K. Bhuvaneswari

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 516-523
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430807

A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of soil drenching and foliar application of different biostimulants on physiological and quality parameters of curry leaf (Murraya Koenigii Spreng.) at Karamadai, Coimbatore during 2019 to 2021. This study was laid out in  factorial randomized block design with control, factor 1 as soil drenching (D1- humic acid @ 5 ml/plant and D2- jeevamrutham @ 50 ml/plant), factor 2 as foliar spray of different biostimulants (S1- Effective microorganism culture @ 2 %, S2- Egg amino acid @ 1%, S3-Panchagavya @ 3%, S4- Sea weed extract @ 2% and S5- Pink Pigmented Facultative Methylotrops (PPFM) @ 1 % and control as farmer practices. The experimental results revealed that significantly higher leaf area (9.88 cm2), leaf area index (15.36), chlorophyll a (0.89 mg/g), chlorophyll b (0.66 mg/) and total chlorophyll (1.80 mg/g), relative water content (74.41%) and fresh herbage yield (840.18g) in the treatment D1S3 (Humic acid + Panchagavya @3 %). Quality parameters like essential oil (0.19%) and oleoresin (2.86%) were significantly higher in the treatment D1S4 (Humic acid + sea weed extract).

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Shalimar Rice-4 (SR -4) underFront Line Demonstration Programme in DistrictBudgam, of Jammu and Kashmir

Sabia Akhter, Nasir Ahmad Dar, Ambreen Nabi, Vaseem Yousuf, Rafiya Munshi, Khurshid Ahmad Sofi, Mir Nadeem, Rukhsana Jan, Iram Farooq, Khurshid Ahmad Zargar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 524-529
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430808

Front Line Demonstration (FLD) Programme on Shalimar Rice-4 was carried out during the four successive years of 2018, 2019, 2020and 2021on the farmers field. The farmers were selected from different villages of the district Budgam. The variety SR-4 was used in the demonstrated plots atfarmers’ field where different field operations were carried out according to the package of practices of SKUAST-K. During the FLD programme the average seed yield of SR-4 during the four years was 85q/hain demonstrated fields as compared to50.5q/ha seed obtained from the local check (China-1039).The average technology gap over the four years was found to be 2.08q/ha and extension gap 34.56q/ha. The average technology index was 3.18 per cent. Higher gross returns (Rs. 1,30,013 ha-1), net returns (89,637.5 ha-1) with a benefit-cost ratio of 2.22 were found in demonstrated fields as compared to 1.38 in case of local check. The higher yield is attributed to the introduction of newly released SKUAST K high yielding variety of rice (SR-4).

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Microbial Priming on Germination and Seedling Growth Traits of Compact Cotton CO17

K. Ragadevi, P. Jeyakumar, M. Djanaguiraman, T. Kalaiselvi, L. Arul, L. Mahalingam, V. Ravichandran, S. Anandakumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 530-540
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430809

Cotton, known as “the King of fibers”, is the predominant fiber in the Indian textile industry. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) represent a potential sustainable alternative for the enhancement and protection of crops. The germination and seedling growth of cotton can be optimized by inoculating with PGPR. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different PGPR strains on seed germination and seedling establishment characters on cotton. The highest germination percentage, maximum vigour index and leaf area was obtained with the PPFM TNAU1 strain inoculation. The maximum shoot and root length were observed with seeds treated with Azospirillum strain sp7 with an increase of 24.4 and 42.8% over the control. Underground fresh and dry matter was higher in seedlings treated with Azospirillum sp7 strain compared to control, while the PPFM TNAU1 strain treatment increased the aerial fresh and dry matter content because of its larger leaf area. Seeds inoculated with individual strain of Azospirillum sp7 and PPFM TNAU1 outperformed the combined inoculation of PGPR strains. The increase in germination traits and seedling characters by PGPR strains indicates the positive influence on improving cotton seedling establishment traits associated to higher yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Yield Performance of Baby Corn (Zea mays l.) as Influenced by Row Spacing and Phosphorus Application in Black Cotton Soils of Krishna Zone of Andhra Pradesh, India

R. P. S. Mydhili Teja, K. Ravichandra, Joy Dawson

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 541-545
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430810

Baby corn has a high monetary value, which allows for crop diversification value addition, and revenue generating. As a result, agro-techniques for its cultivation must be standardised. Hence, a field experiment was conducted during the rabi season in black clayey soils at Fodder Production Farm of Livestock Research Station, Sri Venkateswara veterinary University, Lam Farm, Guntur-522034, Andhra Pradesh, India to find out the Influence of different levels of phosphorus (40, 50, 60 kg/ha) and various row spacings (40 x 15 cm, 45 x 15 cm, 50 x 15 cm) on growth and yield of baby corn. The experiment was laid out in Randomised Block Design with nine treatments each replicated thrice. It is observed that crop established with 50 x 15 cm spacing along with application of 50 kg/ha Phosphorus produced Maximum growth attributes viz. Plant height (161.10 cm), Numbers of leaves (12.47), Plant dry weight (90.21 g/plant) and yield attributes viz. No. of cobs/ plant (4.03), Length of cob (24.34 cm), Length of corn (9.47 cm), Cob weight (56.38 g), corn weight (11.61 g), Cob yield (35696.67 kg/ha), Corn yield (7560 kg/ha).

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Planting Techniques and Nitrogen Scheduling on Productivity and Profitability of Basmati Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Rahul Kumar, Mukesh Kumar, R. K. Naresh, Adesh Singh, Satendra Kumar, P. K. Singh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 546-555
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430811

Aim: The present experiment was carried out at Crop Research Center of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut (U.P.), India, to study the effect of planting techniques and nitrogen scheduling on scented wet rice, water productivity and soil health in Inceptisol during kharif season of 2019 and 2020.

Study Design: Experiment was laid out in split plot design (SPD) using crop planting techniques as main plot and nitrogen scheduling as sub plot factor.

Place and Duration of Study: The present investigation was conducted during the kharif season of 2019 and 2020 at the Crop Research Centre of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut (U.P.), India.

Methodology: The main factors consist of four planting techniques viz., Furrow Irrigated Raised Bed System (FIRBs), Reduced Tillage Transplanted Rice (RT-TPR), Unpuddled Transplanted Rice (UTR) and Conventional Transplanted Rice (CTR), the sub factors consist of six nitrogen scheduling variables viz., Control, 100% RDN (50% B + 25% AT + 25% PI), 100% RDN (40% B + 35% AT + 25% PI), 120% RDN (50% B + 25% AT + 25% PI), 120% RDN (40% B + 35% AT + 25% PI) and Real Time N Management through LCC. Observations on crop yield and attributing parameters were recorded at the harvest of crop. Crop was harvested manually at full physiological maturity. The straw yield was obtained by subtract grain yield from the total biomass yield, recorded plot wise after sun drying and computed to q ha-1.

Results: Highest yield recorded under conventional transplanting which was statistically at par with FIRBs and significantly higher than UTR and RT-TPR. Among the nitrogen scheduling practices the highest yield and NPK uptake was obtained with Real Time N Management through LCC which was statistically at par with 120% RDN (50% B + 25% AT + 25% PI) and 100% RDN (50% B + 25% AT + 25% PI), lowest yield and nutrient uptake was obtained in control treatment during both the years of study. Highest net return and B: C ratio was recorded under furrow irrigated raised beds transplanted rice.

Conclusion: Basmati rice gave the higher yield under CTR and net return was associated with FIRBs. Therefore, it may be concluded that transplanting of rice on FIRBs with real time nitrogen management through LCC might be a better option to get higher productivity and profitability of basmati rice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Maize Yield Response to Zinc Fertilization in Farmer’s Field under Rainfed Condition in Hill Region of Assam, Eastern Himalayan Region

Nilim Kalita, P. Boruah, S. Bhuyan, R. K. Saud, S. Maibangsa

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 556-562
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430812

Zinc (Zn) is the micronutrient that most commonly limits maize yields but it receives much less attention than other inputs. The present field experiment was conducted to study the effect of Zn fertilizers on growth and yield of maize in farmer’s field under rainfed condition in hill region of Assam, Eastern Himalayan Region for authenticating Zn fertilizer application in increasing the yield of summer maize in actual farmer’s field condition. The experiment was carried out in 6 locations (as replication) of three villages with four treatments which consist of recommended dose of fertilizer (90:40:40 kg NPK kgha-1), recommended dose of fertilizer with ZnSO4 @15 kg ha-1, Farmers’ practice with ZnSO4 @ 15 kg ha-1 and Farmers’ practice (No application of fertilizers) as control. Maize responded positively to Zn fertilization where the yields increased from 4.62 t ha−1 without Zn to 4.91 t ha−1 with Zn under recommended dose of fertilizers. The yield response of maize to application of Zn only recorded 9.15 % increase in yield in case of farmers practice without any fertilizers. Zn application increased maize yield due to increased cob length, cob diameter, kernel numbers and kernel weight in Zn-deficient soils. The increase in grain yield in case of combined use of fertilizer and ZnSO4 (heptahydrate) was mainly due to significantly more number of kernels per cob (392) as well as kernel weight (120.3 g) over application of fertilizers only i.e. 368 and 108.4 g respectively. The result of the present study reveals that, basal soil application of Zn as ZnSO4 @ 15 kg ha-1 in maize crop along with recommended fertilizers is highly recommended for the soils of North Eastern Hill region of India.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gender-Based Differentiation among Ornamental Crop Growers in Silang, Cavite

Adolfo C. Manuel Jr., Analita dM. Magsino, Cereneo S. Santiago Jr., Renzo Kyle V. Onella

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 563-580
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430813

The difference between men and women is still a social issue of how and why men and women are different and what this means for their roles in society. The study aimed to determine the different roles of men and women in reproductive, productive, community activities, and access to and control over resource and benefits among ornamental crop growers. Data were gathered through interview with the selected 181 ornamental crop growers from 7 barangays in Silang, Cavite using a semi-structured questionnaire. Frequency counts, percentage, range, and mean were used to analyze the data. There were more female ornamental crop growers than males. Their age varied between 21-82 years old. They had varied level of educational attainment, but majority are high school and college graduates. Most of the participants belong to a nuclear type of family with an average household size of four (4) members which in average, have two (2) males and two (2) females per household and their age average was 33 years old. Reproductive activities among ornamental crop growers were female-dominated. Among the reproductive activities, 60 percent are being performed mostly by mothers while only few are more or less equally done by fathers and mothers or in partnership. Productive activities among ornamental crop growers were performed by both female and male, however, a considerable number of females were also engaged hence making productive activities still female-dominated. Community activities among ornamental crop growers engaged both male and female adults but mothers participate the most in community managing activities like Clean and Green Projects, Feeding Programs, and Peace and Order Committee.

Open Access Original Research Article

Forest Nursery Operations and Knowledge of Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Four Forest Districts of the Ashanti Region of Ghana

P. Cobbinah, C. S. Abengmeneng

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 581-588
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430814

Nursery establishment for healthy seedlings is an integral part of afforestation and reforestation projects. Plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) are amid the destructive pathogens that greatly threaten forest nurseries. This study assesses forest nursery operations and knowledge of  PPNs of four forest districts of Ashanti region of Ghana, namely Juaso, Mankranso, Offinso, and Nkawie. Respondents comprised only forestry staff involved in managing forest nurseries. A Structured and semi-structured interview schedule was employed for data collection. Data obtained were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science version 23. Descriptive statistics were used and means presented using tables and graphs. From the study, all the respondents (100%) established temporary nursery to meet seedlings demand.  Majority of the respondents (83.3%) sourced soil from abandoned refuse dump while few (16.7%) collected top soils from unfarmed sites for raising seedlings. Disease occurrence in the nursery was observed by majority (75%) of the respondents while most (66.7%) of them had no idea of the causes of the diseases observed. Greater proportion (66.7%) of the respondents moreover had no knowledge of PPNs and therefore were unaware of their damage potential. Organising seminars and workshops for nursery managers on proper operations and awareness of  PPNs to enhance their knowledge is recommended. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Slope Aspects and Elevation Influenced Herbaceous Diversity and Soil Characteristics in Tropical Forests of Indian Desert

Deepak Mishra, Genda Singh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 589-605
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430815

Aim: Understanding the interactive effects of aspects and elevation on soil properties and vegetation diversity in hill forests of the desert environment is essential for devising strategies to restore such degraded hills.

Place and Duration: Observations were recorded from September to October months of both 2017 and 2018 in a hill forest area in Thar Desert of Rajasthan, India.

Methodology: Three-hundred-twenty plots of 1 m2 (clustered at sixty-four positions based on eight slope aspects and eight elevations) were studied for herbaceous diversity and soil properties by sorting vegetation to species level and soil sampling in each plot. Community population (P), height, soil water content (SWC), pH and organic carbon (SOC) were measured and species-richness (R), Shannon-Weiner diversity (Hꞌ), dominance (D) and evenness (J') were calculated.

Results: Out of 174 species recorded from 34 families and 122 genera, 163 species showed IVI <5. Highest number of species (48) were from family Poaceae. Soil pH, SWC, SOC, P and height were greater in 2017, whereas R, Hꞌ and Jꞌ were greater in 2018. Soil pH, vegetation height and D were lowest in northeast and highest (1.04-1.54-fold) in west to southeast. SOC, SWC, R and J' were 1.16-2.35-fold greater in northeast than south aspect. P, height and H′ showed a reverse trend with 1.15-1.53-fold variation. SOC, height, R and H' increased by 1.30-2.35-fold with an increase in elevation from <230m to >600m, whereas D and pH showed a decreasing trend. The highest values of SWC, P and Jꞌ were in 800-900m, 700-800m and 600-700m respectively. Though varied with aspects, <230m area was dominated by xeric species, middle by Aristida adscensionis and higher ones by Apluda mutica/Heteropogon contortus.

Conclusion: Altitude had stronger impact on all variables except SWC, which was influenced strongly by aspects making southern slopes drier than the northern slopes and influenced species structure and composition. Such areas require effective conservation, but aspect and elevation should be given due importance in devising restoration strategies for efficient management of biodiversity and mitigating climate change.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Jamun (Syzygium cumini Skeels.) Genotypes Based on Shelf life and Interspecific Crossability

K. Ajay Kumar, K. Mounika, M. M. Shulee Ariina, C. S. Maiti

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 606-609
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430816

An experiment was conducted during 2019 to study the jamun genotypes based on shelf life of fruit. Shelf life studies were conducted on eight jamun genotypes and results indicated that, the maximum shelf life of the Jamun fruit was 5 days under normal room temperature after harvest at ripened stage. Genotypes Dhoopdal, Selection-45 and Savadatti had better shelf life compare to other genotypes. In crossing (S. cumini × S. jambose), out of 100 crossed flowers, only 5 crossed flowers were set and produced fully mature fruits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variability and Diversity in Rice Cultivars of North Bank Plain Zone of Assam for Traits Associated with Grain Yield and Adaption under Moisture Stress

Abu Saleh Nizamuddin Ahmed, M. K. Sarma, Daizi Durba Saharia, Manash Protim Nath, Nigombam Sonia Devi, Jugal Chandra Talukdar, Sobha Dutta Deka

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 610-618
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430817

Fifty four rice cultivars from North Bank Plain Zone (NBPZ) of Assam were assessed for their genetic variability and diversity with respect to yield and traits associated with adaptation under moisture stress with a view to formulate hybridization strategies for further genetic improvement. Genotypes were evaluated following a completely randomized design with two replications under PVC pipes at the experimental field of BN College of Agriculture, Biswanath Chariali, Assam.  A higher magnitude of phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation was recorded for root volume, root dry weight, root length density, filled grains per panicle, shoot dry weight, root length, root-shoot ratio and grain yield per plant. High heritability coupled with higher genetic advance was registered for root dry weight, root length density, root volume, root-shoot ratio, root length and grain yield per plant. D2 analysis revealed that the genotypes could be distributed into a group of eight clusters with maximum distance between cluster III and cluster V (845.71). Root volume was found to contribute highest towards divergence (12.83%). Out of all the clusters, cluster IV with an intra cluster distance of 370.76 consisted of maximum number of accessions (17). Genotypes based on the inter se genetic distance and per se performances of specific traits were identified for undertaking hybridization programme. The implication of the diversity pattern elucidated for breeding varieties for moisture stress adaptation were discussed. Hybridization programme may be undertaken between the identified genotypes having inter se genetic diversity belonging to diverse clusters. Thus it could be expected to obtain desirable segregants out of the hybridization programme for further genetic improvement of rice in the region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Variability and Genetic Parameters in Agro-Physiological Traits of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under Rainfed Condition

Lekha Ram, Balram Baraiya, Ashok Kumar Choudhary, Basant Kachouli

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 619-626
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430828

An experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2017-18 to estimate  the genetic parameters of variation including heritability and genetic advance for agro-physiological characters viz., days to flower initiation, days to 50 per cent flowering, days to maturity, plant height, branches per plant, pods per plant, seeds per plant, biological yield per plant (g), seed yield per plant (g), 100-seed weight (g), root length (cm), relative water content and harvest index (%) in 20 genotypes of chickpea. High phenotypic coefficient of variance (PCV) and genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV) were observed for characters viz., number of branches per plant, seeds per plant and 100-seed weight. The magnitude of phenotypic coefficient of variance and their corresponding genotypic coefficient of variance for all the characters were observed in good agreement reflecting the narrow range of environmental influence in the manifestation of the characters. High heritability was recorded for number of branches per plant, 100-seed weight, seeds per plant, pods per plant and biological yield per plant.  High heritability combined with high genetic advance was observed for seeds per plant, pods per plant and 100-seed weight which indicated that these traits were governed by additive gene effects and phenotypic selection would be effective in early generations for these characters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Leguminous Crops under Different Tillage Practices in Silty Loam Soil of Balochistan

Muhammad Sharif, Misbahn Ullah, Tariq Ziad, Imran Khan, Nasir Khan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 627-639
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2431110

Balochistan is the province of Pakistan that facing serious issues such assoil erosion, structural instability, and nutrient depletion, and water scarcity, accumulation of excessive salts in soil and low contents of organic matter. Unfortunately, the current exhaustive cropping system and intensive ploughing further promoting the mentioned problems. The following study was designed with the objective i) to evaluate the effects of different tillage and legumes on soil organic carbon dynamic in upland of Balochistan. ii) To compare the outcomes of various tillage practices on legume crop manufacturing in upland of Balochistan. Treatments consist of zero tillage (ZT), minimal tillage (MT) and traditional tillage (CT) and crop become gram develop at some point of summer time season.  Experimental results revealed that soil pH under ZT (8.1) MT (8) CT (8); EC under ZT (1.3dsm-1) MT (0.84 dsm-1) CT (0.87 dsm-1); MOC under ZT (0.27%) MT (0.24%) CT (0.25%); POC under ZT (0.45%) MT (0.42%) CT (0.4%), TOC under ZT (0.84%) MT (0.82%) CT (0.78%); OM under ZT (0.7%) MT (0.7%) CT (0.64%); MBC under ZT (0.53%) MT (0.52%) CT (0.46%); Moisture Content under ZT (16.51) MT (15.87) CT (15.16); temperature Under ZT (23.067) MT (22.867) CT (22.733) Plant emergence Under ZT (81.6%) MT (80%) CT (79%); Biological yield Under ZT (0.3933kgm-2) MT (0.38 kgm-2) CT (0.38 kgm-2); Grain Yield under ZT (0.14 kgm-2) MT (0.13 kgm-2) CT (0.12 kgm-2). It is concluded that guar crop germination was a serious problems under all the tillage practices. However, soil properties were improved with reduction of tillage practices especially buildup of organic carbon was observed under zero tillage practices.

Open Access Review Article

Alternative Thermal Processing Technique for Liquid Foods-membrane Processing

S. Shahir

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 68-79
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2430752

Liquid foods are sensitive to temperature and concentration by conventional methods results in product deterioration. Alternative processes, such as freeze concentration, have the drawback with respect to the maximum achievable concentration (only up to 40 to 45°Brix). In recent years membrane processes such as Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis are gaining importance for the concentration of liquid foods. Since heat is not involved in this process, it is also called Alternate thermal processing technique. This process can be employed as a pre-concentration step to reduce water load on subsequent processing steps and can be easily scaled up. Liquid foods such as fruit juices are of high nutritive value as they are naturally enriched with minerals, vitamins and other beneficial components required for human health. When extracted from their sources fruit juices have low solid content, color strength and high-water load. Recent advances and developments in this membrane processing used for the concentration of liquid foods are discussed here.